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Full text of "International terrorism : Buenos Aires, Panama, and London : joint hearing before the Subcommittees on International Security, International Organizations, and Human Rights and the Western Hemisphere of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, August 1, 1994"

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^0 INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: BUENOS AIRES, 
V^ PANAMA AND LONDON 



Y 4,F 76/1: T 27/6 

International Terrorisn: Buenos ftir. . . 

JOINT HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEES ON 

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, INTERNATIONAL 

ORGANIZATIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS 

AND 

THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



AUGUST 1, 1994 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Foreign Affairs 

s 





MAP 6t995 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
84-344 CC WASHINGTON : 1994 

For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office 
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington. DC 20402 
ISBN 0-16-046261-4 



J INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: BUENOS AIRES, 
' PANAMA AND LONDON 



Y 4,F76/1:T 27/6 

International Terrorisn: Buenos ftir. . . 

JOINT HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEES ON 

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, INTERNATIONAL 

ORGANIZATIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS 

AND 

THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



AUGUST 1, 1994 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Foreign Affairs 

6ui 





MAP 6t995 



'^^^»!»^^l 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
84-344 CC WASHINGTON : 1994 

For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office 
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402 
ISBN 0-16-046261-4 



COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS 
LEE H. HAMILTON, Indiana, Chairman 



SAM GEJDENSON, Connecticut 

TOM LANTOS, California 

ROBERT G. TORRICELLI, New Jersey 

HOWARD L. BERMAN, California 

GARY L. ACKERMAN, New York 

HARRY JOHNSTON, Florida 

ELIOT L. ENGEL, New York 

ENI F.H. FALEOMAVAEGA, American 

Samoa 
JAMES L. OBERSTAR, Minnesota 
CHARLES E. SCHUMER, New York 
MATTHEW G. MARTINEZ, California 
ROBERT A. BORSKI, Pennsylvania 
DONALD M. PAYNE, New Jersey 
ROBERT E. ANDREWS, New Jersey 
ROBERT MENENDEZ, New Jersey 
SHERROD BROWN, Ohio 
CYNTHIA A. McKINNEY, Georgia 
MARIA CANTWELL, Washington 
ALCEE L. HASTINGS, Florida 
ERIC FINGERHUT, Ohio 
PETER DEUTSCH, Florida 
ALBERT RUSSELL WYNN, Maryland 
DON EDWARDS, California 
FRANK MCCLOSKEY, Indiana 
THOMAS C. SAWYER, Ohio 
LUIS V. GUTIERREZ, Illinois 

Michael H. Van Dusen, Chief of Staff 
Richard J. Garon, Minority Chief of Staff 
„.JCysa?JlAH;^AUCER,- Professional Staff Member 
. ..■: rU iii iT.-J^''-^-;; 'Jo Webkr, Staff Associate 
- ^ » •■ '.'~^' ^3iil^UAGROS Martinez, Staff Associate 



BENJAMIN A. OILMAN, New York 
WILLIAM F. GOODLING, Pennsylvania 
JAMES A. LEACH, Iowa 
TOBY ROTH, Wisconsin 
OLYMPIA J. SNOWE, Maine 
HENRY J. HYDE, Illinois 
DOUG BEREUTER, Nebraska 
CHRISTOPHER H. SMITH, New Jersey 
DAN BURTON, Indiana 
JAN MEYERS, Kansas 
ELTON GALLEGLY, California 
ILEANA ROS-LEHTINEN, Florida 
CASS BALLENGER, North Carolina 
DANA ROHRABACHER, California 
DAVID A. LEVY, New York 
DONALD A. MANZULLO, Illinois 
LINCOLN DIAZ-BALART, Florida 
EDWARD R. ROYCE, California 



(II) 



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A^■^%■t^' *' 



International Security, International Organization and Human Rights 

TOM LANTOS, California, Chairman 

HOWARD L. HERMAN, California DOUG BEREUTER, Nebraska 

GARY L. ACKERMAN, New York OLYMPIA J. SNOWE, Maine 

MATTHEW G. MARTINEZ, California CHRISTOPHER H. SMITH, New Jersey 

FRANK McCLOSKEY, Indiana DAN BURTON, Indiana 

THOMAS C. SAWYER, Ohio 

Robert King, Staff Director 

Michael Ennis, Republican Professional Staff Member 

Theodore M. HIRSCH, Professional Staff Member 

Beth L. PoissoN, Professional Staff Member 

Andrea L. Nelson, Professional Staff Member 



Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere 

ROBERT G. TORRICELLI, New Jersey, Chairman 
ROBERT MENENDEZ, New Jersey CHRISTOPHER H. SMITH, New Jersey 

JAMES L. OBERSTAR, Minnesota ILEANA ROS-LEHTINEN, Florida 

CYNTHIA A. MCKINNEY, Georgia CASS BALLENGER, North Carohna 

PETER DEUTSCH, Florida ELTON GALLEGLY, California 

ALBERT RUSSELL WYNN, Maryland 

Rob Henken, Staff Director 

Dorothy TaFT, Republican Professional Staff Member 

ALAN Fleischmann, Professional Staff Member 

(in) 



CONTENTS 



WITNESSES 



Page 

Hon. Raul Enrique Granillo Ocampo, Ambassador of Argentina 4 

Steven Emerson, specialist on international terrorism and radical fundamen- 
talism and author H 

Ruben Beraja, president, Delegation of Argentine Jewish Associations (DAIA) 15 

Barbara A. Bodine, Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Department of State .... 27 

APPENDIX 

Prepared statements: 

Hon. Tom Lantos 39 

Ambassador Raul Granillo Ocampo 40 

Steven Emerson 60 

Dr. Ruben Beraja "75 

Ms. Barbara A. Bodine 

Hon. Gary Ackerman 80 

The Inter-Parlimentary Council Against Anti-Semitism 84 

United Kingdom on Buenos Aires/London bombings 86 

Speech delivered by Dr. Ruben Beraja on July 21, 1994 at a public rally 

held in Buenos Aires 92 

Rabbi Avi Weis, prepared statement 94 



(V) 



INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: BUENOS AIRES, 
PANAMA AND LONDON 



MONDAY, AUGUST 1, 1994 

House of Representatives, 
Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
Subcommittee on International Security, Inter- 
national Organizations and Human Rights, joint 
WITH THE Subcommittee on the Western Hemi- 
sphere, 

Washington, DC. 

The subcommittees met, pursuant to call, at 10:07 a.m. in room 
2172, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Tom Lantos (Sub- 
committee on International Security, International Organizations 
and Human Rights) presiding. 

Mr. Lantos. The subcommittee on International Security, Inter- 
national Organizations and Human Rights and the Subcommittee 
on the Western Hemisphere will be in order. 

Today the subcommittees will focus their attention on inter- 
national terrorism in the aftermath of the recent outbreak of ter- 
rorist bombings in Buenos Aires, London, and Panama. 

On the surface, these terrorist bombings appear to be new at- 
tacks against Israeli and Jewish targets. The bomb in Buenos Aires 
was directed against the Jewish Community Center and it was 
strikingly similar to a bombing against the Israeli Embassy in Bue- 
nos Aires just 2 years ago. 

The two bombs in London were directed against the Israeli Em- 
bassy and against a Jewish Community Center there. In reality, 
however, we are facing a new and violent upsurge in a much broad- 
er, more insidious and dangerous war against civilized societies, 
against democracy and pluralism, against the West. 

Just a year-and-a-half ago, one of the first series of hearings I 
conducted as chairman of this subcommittee was on the bombing 
of the World Trade Center in New York. That terrorist attack re- 
sulted in the death of several people, injury to hundreds, and prop- 
erty damage at astronomical levels. 

Last Thursday in this room, the subcommittee held yet another 
hearing on the terrorist attack against an American aircraft. Pan 
Am flight 103, which exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland almost 6 
years ago. That terrorist atrocity resulted in the death of over 250 
innocent people, including 189 American citizens, Catholics, Protes- 
tants, and Jews. 

In this morning's New York Times, an article, "Iran Wages Fierce 
Campaign Against Its Christian Minority", has the following to 
say: 

(1) 



"The Islamic Government of Iran, which has often been criticized 
by human rights groups for its treatment of religious minorities, is 
mounting the fiercest campaign since the 1979 revolution against 
the small Christian minority here, church leaders and Western dip- 
lomats say. 

"Three Christian leaders have been killed since the beginning of 
the year. Churches have been shot down, scores of young Chris- 
tians, many converts from Islam have been imprisoned and tor- 
tured, especially in the cities of Gorgan and Kermanshah, church 
officials say. And pastors have been expelled from parishes or are 
under surveillance. 

"Even by the standards of Iran, the current crackdown is extraor- 
dinary, says a senior Western diplomat in Tehran. 

"In a population of roughly 62 million people," says the New York 
Times article, "Iran's religious minorities include 3V2 million Sunni 
Muslims, 350,000 followers of the Bahai faith, 80,000 Christians, 
and 30,000 Jews. The Bahais have seen over 200 of their followers 
executed since the revolution. Tens of thousands of Christians, as 
well as Jews and Bahais, have fled Iran in the last 15 years. A sen- 
ior Western diplomat says evangelical groups appear slated for 
eradication. 

"The Assemblies of God Church, which has 8,000 members in 
Iran, is the most active in the evangelical movement and is the 
main target of the crackdown. A lot of young Iranians, embittered 
by the austerity and control imposed by these Islamic clerics, seek 
conversion as one of the most potent forms of protest. 

"Church leaders say Iranian officials forced them a few days ago 
to ask a delegation of Western clergymen not to come to Iran to in- 
vestigate the death of Christian leaders. The delegation had been 
invited by the government. One of those killed was Mehdi Dibaj, 
an Assemblies of God leader who was imprisoned for 9 years and 
sentenced to death for apostasy. He was freed in January, but dis- 
appeared in June. On July 3, the police delivered his mutilated 
body to his family. 

"Another was Bishop Haik Hovsepian Mehr, head of the Evan- 
gelical Council of Pastors in Iran who had campaigned relentlessly 
for Mr. Dibaj's release from prison. He disappeared 3 days after 
Mr. Dibaj was freed, and 11 days later his body, covered with stab 
wounds, was turned over to his family. 

"On June 29, the Reverend Tatavous Mikaelian, a prominent 
Presbyterian minister who succeeded the bishop as head of the 
council, disappeared. His bullet-riddled corpse was turned over to 
his son on July 2 by the police." It would be naive indeed not to 
make a connection of all these events. 

The collapse of the Soviet empire, which represented a global 
military threat to the civilized world, has now left the United 
States in a position that there is no military force today that can 
defeat us on the battlefield. But pain and suffering and chaos can 
be inflicted on the United States and on the civilized world by ter- 
rorists on the streets of our cities, in our airports, and on our air- 
craft. 

And the horror and destruction that we have already seen are 
only a small part of what we could see in the future. Just a few 
weeks ago in this hearing room, the subcommittee heard from the 



Director of Central Intelligence, James Woolsey. He testified of the 
potential danger of Soviet nuclear weapons falling into the hands 
of terrorists. 

Clearly the kind of people who bombed Pan Am 103, who bombed 
the World Trade Center, and who carried out the series of bomb- 
ings of the last few weeks are capable of seeking and using nuclear 
weapons, as well as weapons of a chemical and biological nature. 

While we don't have total information as yet about the specific 
individuals and groups who perpetrated some of the latest terrorist 
incidents in Buenos Aires, Panama and London, we do have a very 
clear picture of the leaders and of the countries that are behind 
these and similar incidents. 

These latest bombings have the clear imprint of Iran and its ally, 
Hizballah, the radical Muslim organization in Lebanon. But others 
have also been involved in past terrorist activities and may be in- 
volved in these, including Libya, Syria, Iraq, and North Korea. 

At the same time, irresponsible Western commercial interests are 
hell bent on providing the most dangerous ingredients of weapons 
of mass destruction to rogue regimes. They are stumbling all over 
themselves to sell these dangerous products to make a profit, irre- 
spective of what this means to civilized society. 

These latest terrorist attacks must be a wake-up call to the en- 
tire civilized world — a call to awareness of the real and serious 
dangers to our lives, to our way of thinking, to our civilization. We 
must give serious and urgent attention to this wave of attacks 
against the West, rather than to side shows and morbid entertain- 
ment, like the O.J. Simpson affair, that currently seem to fill our 
awareness and receive the bulk of our news Media's attention. 

It is for reasons of focusing attention and taking action that the 
incoming Republican leader. Congressman Newt Gingrich and I, 
are introducing a bipartisan resolution calling on the President of 
the United States to convene at the summit level an action-ori- 
ented conference on international terrorism. 

It is essential that we give the greatest attention to this issue so 
that Tehran, the leaders of Hizballah in the Bekaa Valley of Leb- 
anon, and the leaders of other rogue regimes which sponsor or shel- 
ter terrorism will know that the West is prepared to defend itself 
against terrorism, no less than it was ready and prepared to defend 
itself against the Soviet Union. 

This hearing has been prepared by a number of Democratic and 
Republican staff members and I wdnt to acknowledge them. First, 
Andrea Nelson, Beth Poisson, Ted Hirsch, Jo Weber, John Peter- 
son, Christoff Laubry, Jamie King, and our staff director. Dr. Rob- 
ert King. And, on the Republican side, Mike Ennis. 

I will place in the record, without objection, a statement submit- 
ted by the Grovernment of the United Kingdom and a variety of 
other statements. The record will remain open for the submission 
of appropriate additional testimony. 

[The prepared statement of Mr. Lantos appears in the appendix.] 

Mr. Lantos. We will begin this morning's hearing with His Ex- 
cellency, Raul Enrique Granillo Ocampo, the distinguished Ambas- 
sador of Argentina, who will read a statement on behalf of the For- 
eign Minister and President of Argentina. We are very pleased to 
have you, Mr. Ambassador, and your associates. 



You may proceed any way you choose. 

STATEMENT OF HON. RAUL ENRIQUE GRANILLO OCAMPO, 
AMBASSADOR OF ARGENTINA 

Ambassador Ocampo. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am honored 
to be here this morning in response to your invitation to the Gov- 
ernment of Argentina to make a statement on the recent bombing 
in Buenos Aires of the headquarters of the Argentine Israeli Mu- 
tual Aid Association and the Delegation of Argentine Israeli Asso- 
ciation (DAIA). 

My statement will be offered in the spirit of international co- 
operation against terrorism already established between our two 
governments. 

In a few minutes, your Subcommittees on International Security, 
International Organizations and Human Rights and on the West- 
ern Hemisphere will conduct a joint hearing to examine recent 
international terrorist attacks on Israeli and Jewish institutions 
around the world, including the one carried out exactly a fortnight 
ago in Argentina. 

Your witnesses' comments and your subcommittees' reports will 
be of great interest to my government and also underline the truly 
international response terrorists will confront in their criminal 
acts. 

Regarding what occurred in Argentina and how it might relate 
to other similar attacks, let me first recall that on Monday, July 
18 at 9:57 a.m., Buenos Aires, capital and major city of Argentina, 
was struck by international terrorism. The AMIA/DAIA bombing 
has been considered the most important terrorist incident in Ar- 
gentine history and the most serious attack on the Jewish commu- 
nity anywhere in the world since World War II, leaving 82 people 
dead, 227 injured, and 15 missing. Amongst them we count the po- 
lice detachment on duty at the building. 

Mr. Lantos. If I may interrupt you, Mr. Ambassador, you are 
stating that this is the most significant terrorist episode in the his- 
tory of Argentina? 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. 

Mr. Lantos. And the most significant attack on a Jewish com- 
munity anywhere in the world since the Holocaust of the Second 
World War? 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. This is how we are affected. This act 
of violence also destroyed AMIA's traditional seven-story building 
and the many documents it contained bearing testimony to more 
than a century of Jewish life in Argentina. It also seriously dam- 
aged the neighborhood. 

Initial evaluations indicate that a van carrying a directional 
charge hit the front of the concrete and brick building. As it col- 
lapsed, the rest of the structure fell with it. The fact that the foun- 
dations remained in place proves that the explosion came from out- 
side the building. 

The exact size of the charge is difficult to determine. Even a rel- 
atively small one would have caused the building to fall. However, 
evaluation of collateral damage has allowed experts to determine 
that no less than 660 pounds of explosives were used. Damage to 



adjacent buildings confirmed this, just as the shrapnel dispersal 
pattern confirmed use of a car bomb. 

Mr. Lantos. If I may again stop you for a second, Mr. Ambas- 
sador. 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. 

Mr. Lantos. My information is that this basically can be charac- 
terized as a suicide bombing attack. Is that the conclusion of the 
Argentine Government at this stage? 

Ambassador Ocampo. We have exactly the same conclusion, yes. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you. 

Ambassador Ocampo. These were the second such bombing at- 
tacks in Argentine. At 2:40 p.m. on March 17, 1992, the Israeli Em- 
bassy in Buenos Aires was destroyed. Although one was directed 
against the mission of a foreign government and the other against 
an Argentine institution, both bombings were most probably in- 
spired by political motivations originated in the Middle East. 

The embassy building collapsed, burying diplomatic personnel 
and visitors inside the premises and leaving, at final count, 28 
dead and 252 injured. 

A car bomb with an estimated 1,320 pounds of explosives was 
used. The pickup truck's wreckage was crucial in contributing to 
the early stages of the investigation. 

From Lebanon, the Hizballah terrorist organization claimed re- 
sponsibility for this bombing, offering as proof of its involvement an 
intelligence video it had made of the embassy prior to the attack. 

Mr. Lantos. If I may stop you again. 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. 

Mr. Lantos. This bombing which occurred over 2 years ago 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. 

Mr. Lantos [continuing]. Was a terrorist attack for which the 
Hizballah terrorist organization claimed responsibility. Is it the 
conclusion of the Government of Argentina that, in fact, Hizballah 
committed that terrorist attack? 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. We believe that this organization 
claimed responsibility. They are doing this, and are claiming re- 
sponsibility. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you, Mr. Ambassador. 

Ambassador Ocampo. International cooperation was immediately 
established for the investigation of the embassy bombing. The 
United States and Israel were particularly active in this respect. 
Nevertheless, our joint investigative efforts have yet to produce 
final results. Actually, international experience shows that finding 
those responsible for terrorist actions is not a quick or easy matter. 

For example, the December 1988 Pan Am flight 103 tragedy over 
Lockerbie was only resolved toward the end of 1991. A similar pe- 
riod was required in the case of the French UTA DC-10 bombing 
of 1989 which was not attributed to Libyans until 1991. Terrorist 
attempts in France during 1985 and 1986 were finally found in 
1990 to be the responsibility of Shi'ite fundamentalists. In other 
cases, it proved impossible to identify those responsible for terrorist 
acts despite intense investigative efforts. 

Despite the delays, our resolve to investigate these criminal acts 
and discover those responsible for them will not diminish. 



The AMIA building had been a point of reference for generations 
of Argentines who valued the role played by Jews in our history 
and in forming our way of life. 

The Jewish community is an integral part of our nation of immi- 
grants, where people of different origins share similar values and 
common goals. Thus, the AMIA bombing aroused deep feelings of 
sorrow and anger in Argentina. Indignation mounted as media re- 
ports brought home its magnitude. 

My government immediately and strongly condemned this crimi- 
nal act and considered it an affront to the nation, the Jewish com- 
munity, and civilized society as a whole. Three national days of 
mourning were followed by a joint meeting of the Congress to 
which all political parties, several national institutions, and Jewish 
organizations were invited. 

Congressional committees in Argentina are holding hearings to 
achieve insight on the matter. Last week, the Foreign Minister ex- 
plained the situation from the foreign policy point of view. The 
Minister of Interior is expected to appear before them in the next 
few days. 

At a more popular level, I can think of no better expression of 
public sentiment toward the bombing than the 150,000 people who 
gathered in the street of Buenos Aires in a mass demonstration to 
condemn the attack. 

My government has reacted vigorously in pursuit of those re- 
sponsible and in relief of the victims and their families. Borders 
were ordered closed by the President on the day of the bombing. 
Reinforced immigration controls allowed certain individuals to be 
detained. Since the attack, routine police protection to Jewish 
schools, synagogues, and other institutions has been significantly 
increased. 

Federal Judge Juan Jose Galeano is in charge of the criminal in- 
vestigation and has been working with the administration and se- 
curity forces to capture those responsible. In the context of his in- 
vestigation. Judge Galeano traveled to Venezuela to receive state- 
ments from the Iranian citizen who was said to possess informa- 
tion. 

In the diplomatic field, and in order to receive firsthand reports, 
our Ambassadors in Beirut and Tehran have been called to Buenos 
Aires. We have also requested information from the Lebanese and 
the Iranian Governments regarding Hizballah sponsored organiza- 
tions that can be found in those countries. More specifically, the 
Iranian Ambassador in Argentina has been called several times in 
the last few days to meet with foreign ministry officials. 

A special committee has also been established, linking the police 
with Jewish institutions in order to maintain permanent contact 
with them and with the neighborhood damaged by the bomb. 

Government officials have made themselves available to Israeli 
envoys and Argentine and foreign Jewish organizations, whose rep- 
resentatives went to Buenos Aires to offer support and gather in- 
formation. Meetings with the President and members of his cabinet 
took place in this context. 

During their meetings. President Menem recalled his statements 
on the attack, the openness and solidarity of the Argentine people 
and his own determination to identify and punish those respon- 



sible. He also announced that financial assistance will be extended 
to the families of the victims and that a request for aid in rebuild- 
ing the AMIA/DAIA headquarters would receive favorable consider- 
ation. Here in the United States, my embassy and all our con- 
sulates have been in constant contact with the many individuals 
and American Jewish organizations that came forward at this mo- 
ment. 

Notwithstanding the generalized conviction that the motives and 
inspiration for the bombing are related to the Middle East, reputed 
existence of anti-Semitism in Argentina has been mentioned in its 
regard. If anything, the bombing has inspired Argentina to close 
ranks once again with its Jewish community. 

In fact, a survey conducted by the American Jewish Committee 
and the Delegation of Argentine Israeli Associations shows a con- 
siderable tendency toward ethnic, religious, and cultural pluralism 
in Argentine society. It also indicates that on the whole, there is 
a positive orientation toward Jews and significant tolerance in ac- 
cepting the various ethnic and religious groups that make up the 
country. 

It demonstrates further that markedly discriminatory attitudes 
toward Jews and others are not found in the areas of social and 
familial interaction. It also shows that 69 percent of Argentines 
polled preferred to live in a multiracial, culturally diverse, and reli- 
giously free society. 

Mr. Lantos. Mr. Ambassador, although these are encouraging 
statements, you would nevertheless agree, would you not, that 
there are two particular elements within Argentina that may have 
led to the selection of Argentina as the second such major inter- 
national terrorist attack in the hemisphere. 

The first one is the presence of a very significant pro-Nazi ele- 
ment or descendants of the pro-Nazi element that have been given 
safe haven in Argentina following the Second World War. And, the 
second is the presence of a very large radical Shi'ite population liv- 
ing within Argentina. 

International terrorists, to a very large extent, have to depend on 
an internal supportive infrastructure; and in the case of Argentina, 
unfortunately both of these elements, extreme right-wing former 
Nazi groups as well as radical Shi'ite groups, are present which 
makes an international terrorist attack all the more easy because 
there is an internal domestic infrastructure. 

Would you agree with that? 

Ambassador Ocampo. No, I don't agree with you. We don't have 
the same viewpoint. We believe that there is minuscule groups of 
people who follow these Nazi feelings and these Nazi politics. 

Mr. Lantos. It is a small group? 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes, and I believe this group in Argentina 
is smaller than the group that exists in any country, also in your 
country, and I believe we don't have Shi'ite meeting in Argentina. 
Maybe it would be an undercore, but again, they are really a min- 
uscule group and we don't believe that it is a clear and fair charac- 
terization to say that this group has influenced us in Argentina. 

Mr. Lantos. Please. 

Ambassador Ocampo. To those who suggested that an appro- 
priate response to terrorism can be found in setting aside the law. 



8 

I must answer emphatically that our recent history has shown us 
in an unfortunate way that violence only generates more violence. 

The establishment of democracy in Argentina over a decade ago 
also brought about the replacement of a repressive security appara- 
tus by an intelligence community imbued with the concept of the 
rule of law. Countries such as mine, which enjoy democratic insti- 
tutions and governments concerned with the well-being of their 
people will continue to respect legal procedures in their persecution 
of violent terrorist acts. 

My government is committed to securing its people's desire to 
preserve freedom, tolerance, and democracy. At the same time, it 
will not rest until those responsible for the bombings are brought 
to justice. 

The day following the attack in Argentina, a plane carrying nu- 
merous Jewish passengers blew up in flight over Panama. A few 
days later, bombs destroyed the Israeli Embassy in London and 
were set off in front of a building housing British Jewish institu- 
tions. 

During his recent visit to Washington, the Prime Minister of Is- 
rael, Yitzhak Rabin, said in a White House news conference that 
it was reasonable to assume that terrorist bombings of Jewish tar- 
gets in Buenos Aires and London were the work of Muslim extrem- 
ists. In another interview he added the Islamic terrorist move- 
ments are determined to undermine the Arab-Israeli peace process. 
He added that the world was facing a wave of extreme Islamic rad- 
ical terrorist movements with infrastructure all over the world. 

King Hussein of Jordan also denounced the people behind these 
attacks, calling them enemies of hope, enemies of what should be 
normal among people. 

A member of the Israeli Parliament considered that the attack 
against AMIA/DAIA was apparently a retaliation for Israel's bomb- 
ing of a Hizballah training base last June 2 and its kidnapping of 
a Shi'ite Muslim leader in Lebanon on May 21. 

Both Mr. Rabin and Mr. Arafat have separately mentioned that 
the Lebanese Hizballah is behind the AMIA/DAIA bombing. 

My country's renewed participation in multilateral efforts to re- 
spond to situations that threaten international peace and security 
has been perceived as exposing it to a higher level of terrorist ag- 
gression. However, our foreign policy will not be altered. Argentina 
will continue to be positively involved in world affairs and United 
Nations' peacekeeping operations. 

My government considers that the world is now encountering a 
new dimension of terrorism with increased levels of sophistication, 
and that our ability to anticipate its attacks must be enhanced. 

In order to better deal with the international dimension of terror- 
ism, Argentine intelligence agencies have increased cooperation 
with those of other friendly nations. 

Mr. Lantos. May I stop you there for a minute, Mr. Ambas- 
sador? 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. 

Mr. Lantos. Have you received full cooperation from the appro- 
priate agencies and authorities of the U.S. Government in pursuing 
this matter? 



Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. We received and we are receiving a 
very broad and very kind cooperation, and also they agree with the 
perception we are using in this speech or this remark. 

Mr. Lantos. How about the degree of cooperation between the 
appropriate Argentinian authorities and the parallel authorities of 
the Government of Israel? 

Ambassador Ocampo. I cannot say exactly the same. We are re- 
ceiving a very broad and very kindly cooperation. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you. 

Ambassador Ocampo. Let me take a moment to recall that in 
1983, the U.S. Congress authorized the Anti-Terrorism Assistance 
Program, a major initiative to fight international terrorism. Amer- 
ican assistance has since been extended to Argentina for the train- 
ing of government law enforcement officers. 

Immediately after the bombing, we received further offers of co- 
operation from the U.S. Government, which I was instructed to ac- 
cept. Technical details of this offer have been worked out directly 
between the Argentine and American agencies involved. 

Additionally, 24 hours after the explosion, a specialized Israeli 
rescue team arrived in Buenos Aires to help in the search for survi- 
vors. Further cooperation between the intelligence agencies of Ar- 
gentine, Israel, the United States, and other nations was also 
quickly established. Thus, results from the investigation will also 
come from an international effort that is contributing to build the 
Argentina prosecutor's case. 

After the bombing, many nations came forward with a statement 
rejecting the cruel attack against the AMIA/DAIA building. 

President Clinton was among the first to react. He called it cow- 
ardly and said that this terrible loss of innocent lives must not 
deter civilized society from opposing the enemies of peace. 

Responding to an Argentine request for an extraordinary meet- 
ing, the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States 
issued a declaration on July 19 stating its strongest condemnation 
of this attack on the Jewish community in Argentina which is also 
an affront to the entire" nation and the consciences of the people of 
the Americas. 

Argentina also requested and obtained a meeting of the U.N. Se- 
curity Council in order to report on the situation. Last Friday, July 
29, our Foreign Minister went to the U.N. to describe the attack 
and make a specific proposal regarding the scope of diplomatic im- 
munity and the need for U.N. Security Council consideration of 
concrete measures to counter international terrorism. 

Mr. Lantos. If I may stop you here concerning your observation 
about diplomatic immunity; are you suggesting, as has been sug- 
gested by others, that Iranian diplomatic establishments abroad 
are used as terrorist bases? 

Ambassador Ocampo. We don't have a definite proof of this in- 
volvement, but we have a lot of clues that connected us to this con- 
clusion, but we are not going to take any kind of position if we 
don't have the necessary proof 

Mr. Lantos. So what you are suggesting is that you have a lot 
of information 

Ambassador Ocampo. Yes. 



10 

Mr. Lantos [continuing]. Of Iranian diplomatic officials being in- 
volved, but you are not yet at a stage where you are ready to take 
action? 

Ambassador Ocampo. You are very clear in my idea, yes. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you, Mr. Ambassador. 

Ambassador Ocampo. He also stated that although we presume 
that it received support from marginal groups within Argentina, 
the origin of and responsibility for the bombing is to be found be- 
yond Argentina's borders. 

With regards to the Israeli Embassy bombing in 1992, the For- 
eign Minister recalled that on May 28, the spiritual leader of 
Hizballah declared that Muslim fighters have reached Argentina 
and that, therefore, we cannot exclude that this organization is also 
behind the AMIA/DAIA bombing. 

Finally, he added that although we all know who they are, we 
cannot yet officially affirm that other countries are behind the 
bombing. 

The presentation of the Argentine Foreign Minister to the U.N. 
Security Council was based on the General Assembly's Resolution 
44/122 of December 12, 1993, which condemns terrorism and its 
methods and urges the international community to cooperate in the 
struggle against the threat of national, regional, and international 
terrorism. 

On the afternoon of the same day, and also at Argentina's re- 
quest, a second extraordinary meeting of the OAS Permanent 
Council heard a further statement by the Argentine Foreign Min- 
ister. In it, he urged the OAS and its members to undertake con- 
certed actions against terrorism. 

After debating, the Permanent Council of the OAS issued a dec- 
laration expressing its appreciation for additional information pro- 
vided by the Foreign Minister on the bombing and on investigative 
efforts to clarify this atrocity. At the same time, the Permanent 
Council reiterated its declaration of July 19. 

Mr. Chairman, today we are waging a war against irrational vio- 
lence. This struggle is not between Argentina and some terrorist 
group, but between the international community and worldwide 
terrorism, between those who love peace and those who pursue 
spurious objectives without regard to the cost in human lives. We 
must come together to fight this common enemy. 

Therefore, I wish to take this opportunity to call upon your sub- 
committees to continue their work in this regard. I would also like 
to suggest that the U.S. Congress extend its support to initiatives 
directed toward the enhancement of international cooperation in 
the struggle against terrorism. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you very much, Mr. Ambassador. 

[The prepared statement of Ambassador Ocampo appears in the 
appendix.] 

Mr. Lantos. With respect to your last point, let me just express 
my strong agreement with it. It is in the spirit of implementing 
your last observation that the Republican whip, Mr. Gingrich and 
I are moving on our resolution urging on the President to convene 
at the summit level an action-oriented conference on international 
terrorism. 



11 

Before thanking you and your associates, I wonder if my distin- 
guished colleague from Kansas has anv observations to make. 

Mrs. Meyers. Mr. Chairman, just briefly, I would like to agree 
with the Ambassador in his statement. We are all appalled and 
deeply concerned about the activities in your country, and I joined 
with the chairman last year in a resolution of condemnation and 
will do so again this year, and I was pleased to hear your state- 
ment that our Government has done everything that we can to as- 
sist, and I am sure that we will continue in that regard. 

I do have one question, if I may, Mr. Chairman. When you stated 
in vour statement that you knew who the people were, but that you 
didn't have sufficient proof yet to move, does this mean not only 
those who came from out of country, but those within country, you 
know who they are, but you don't have proof? 

Ambassador Ocampo. We were talking about the philosophy of 
the people who are behind this kind of attack. We are not talking 
about the material, the personnel who were conducting the attack. 

Mrs. Meyers. I see. 

Mr. Lantos. Mr. Ambassador, I want to thank both you, your 
two distinguished associates, the Under Secretary for Foreign Pol- 
icy and the Director of North American Affairs for appearing before 
us. 

We want to ask you to convey to the Foreign Minister and to the 
President our appreciation and our determination to continue to 
work with Argentina in solving this despicable terrorist attack and 
in strengthening the network of antiterrorist capabilities of our re- 
spective governments. We appreciate your presence. 

Ambassador Ocampo. Thank you. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

Our next witnesses are Steve Emerson, internationally recog- 
nized authority on terrorism and radical fundamentalism, and Mr. 
Ruben Beraja, president, the Argentina Jewish Community. We are 
happy to have the two of you gentlemen at the table. 

Mr. Emerson, we will begin with you. You have remarkable cre- 
dentials and experience in the global struggle against international 
terrorism. We appreciate your appearance. Your prepared state- 
ment will be entered in the record in its entirety. You may proceed 
any way you choose. 

STATEMENT OF STEVEN EMERSON, SPECIALIST ON INTER- 
NATIONAL TERRORISM AND RADICAL FUNDAMENTALISM 
AND AUTHOR 

Mr. Emerson. Good morning. I shall offer an abbreviated version 
of the statement right now, and the record will reflect the full 
statement. 

I think it is quite appropriate and commendable that you are 
holding this hearing this morning regarding the bombings in the 
last 2 weeks. The American public needs to understand that al- 
though the bombings took place thousands of miles away and the 
victims were foreigners, the next time we could be the target. Al- 
though the media has devoted far less attention to this carnage 
than it did to similar acts of religious fanatical acts of violence ear- 
lier this year in the Middle East, the attacks in Argentina and Lon- 
don were no less horrific. 



12 

I believe the American public and the American policymakers 
must begin to understand the depth of the new problem facing the 
world. As you noted in your own opening statement, the bombings 
were not simply an attempt by the enemies of peace to derail the 
peace process, as several senior U.S. officials said last week, nor 
were they simply the return, "of Middle Eastern terrorism to Lon- 
don," as a senior British law enforcement official said. Rather, the 
bombings are part of an escalating worldwide battle between radi- 
cal Islamic militants and the West. The perpetrators of these bomb- 
ings are not motivated by what we know as, "legitimate griev- 
ances". 

Radical Islamic militants see the very existence of pro-Western 
nations, such as Israel and Egypt, or pluralistic systems, such as 
democracy, or rival religions, such as Judaism and Christianity or 
even moderate Muslims as a mortal threat to their own being. 
These militants see the continuation of 1,000-year conspiracy 
waged by the infidel to subjugate Islam. In this perspective, the 
West's publication of Salman Rushdie's book and the 1991 Persian 
Gulf war are only extensions of the crusader's assault on Islam. 

The terrorism of the 1970's, largely attributable to Palestinian 
organizations, ultimately dissipated because of the secular nature 
of the PLO's demands and its willingness to compromise on its 
goals to destroy Israel. Today, Yassar Arafat is either unwilling or 
unable to stop other Palestinian terrorists, but at least he has put 
an end to most Fatah terrorism. 

Radical Islamic militants are not susceptible to the same rational 
persuasion. They see any accord that accepts the legitimacy of a 
Jewish state or the existence of pro-American regimes in Egypt or 
Jordan as intrinsically offensive. To these groups, there can be no 
compromise. It is a duel to the death with the infidels and the 
heretics. 

This war is without borders. Unlike the peaceful version of 
Jihad, these militants see and practice Jihad only as a holy war. 
Becoming a martyr in the cause of Jihad is just as good as killing 
in the cause of Jihad. In this new clash between militant Islam and 
its enemies, political reconciliation is inherently impossible. 

In Europe, Hizballah-Iran assassination squads have murdered 
scores of dissidents. In Thailand earlier this year, the Israeli Em- 
bassy narrowly missed being blown up. In Bangladesh, a female 
writer has recently been subject to a death threat, the equivalent 
of what was issued to Salman Rushdie. 

In Canada, various terrorists belonging to Hizballah and the 
black Muslim group Al-Fuqra have been convicted; and even in 
Chicago earlier this year, several Jewish institutions were torched 
by Palestinian youths who apparently were part of a larger Hamas 
community. 

Despite attempts by some in this country to paper over the dif- 
ferences between radical Islam and the West, the fact remains that 
radical Islamic leaders see the West as part of a major conspiracy 
to wipe out Islam. In this context, Israel is the Little Satan and 
the United States is the Great Satan. 

Attacks on targets like the World Trade Center last year or in 
Buenos Aires 2 weeks ago are justified, even mandated as part of 
the holy war against the infidels. For those perpetrating such at- 



13 

tacks, they may indeed be motivated by distinct events, but the 
larger local support network needed to carry out such terrorism 
could only arise because of the widespread acceptance of radical 
anti-Western precepts. 

I want to make very clear that at the outset, it is important to 
point out that the overwhelming majority of the nearly 1 billion 
Muslims in the world today do not support such concepts of Jihad 
or violence. 

Those that support violence are only a very small minority and 
totally unrepresentative of the larger Muslim community, and as 
King Hussein of Jordan said the other day at press conference at 
the White House, the bombings in Argentina had nothing to do 
with Islam. 

In a theological sense, he is absolutely right. Terrorism has noth- 
ing to do witn mainstream Islam. Islam is an incredibly rich and 
peaceful religion that has given the world a wonderful legacy. But 
in the last half of the 20th centurv, in particular, the last 20 years, 
militancy and violence has everything to do with the rise of radical 
Islamic fundamentalism. 

It would be the height of recklessness and naivete to deny that 
which has become a reality. In recent years radical Islamic move- 
ments, for a variety of reasons, have proliferated not just through- 
out the Middle East, but globally. 

These radical extremists have been able to set up a vast institu- 
tional network of supporters throughout the world, and in the 
United States as well, where they have amassed money and weap- 
ons, established recruitment centers, and have even established 
command and control facilities. 

In the United States, for example, the Gama'a Islamiya, 
Hizballah, Hamas, and Islamic Jihad, to name a few, have estab- 
lished elaborate support systems. The same goes, in varying de- 
grees, for Canada, Germany, France, Great Britain, Argentina, and 
elsewhere. 

According to Israeli and American intelligence, there is very little 
doubt that Iran was the major party behind the Argentinian bomb- 
ing. In the past week, I note, Hizballah and Iran have gone to ex- 
traordinary lengths to publicly deny any involvement, but these de- 
nials are the very hallmark of Iranian Hizballah tactics. 

Iran and Hizballah have publicly denied any connection to the 
American hostages held in Lebanon, to the bombing of the Marine 
barracks or the bombing of the U.S. Embassy in the mid-1980's. 
Hizballah is very tightly compartmented. It is organized along fam- 
ily tribal or village lines. This ensures that foreign infiltration is 
impossible. It also ensures that the culpability is limited. 

During the 1980's, there were more than 25 names of different 
groups in Lebanon to claim credit for taking American hostages, all 
were found to be part of the umbrella group called Hizballah. By 
selecting Buenos Aires twice in 2 years, this also ensured that ev- 
eryone would know that Iran and Hizballah were behind the bomb- 
ing while still enabling Iran and Hizballah to fiercely deny any con- 
nection. 

Like the United States, Argentina was deemed a special target 
of recruitment because of the presence of so many Muslim immi- 
grants. In the 1980's, Iran intensified its worldwide outreach pro- 



14 

gram and began providing money and sending Iranian clerics to 
foreign Islamic communities. 

The significance Buenos Aires was accorded by Iran was indi- 
cated by the fact, as pointed out by the Islamic scholar Khalid 
Duran, that Iran sent Ayatollah Rabbanni, 1 of only 40 ayatollahs, 
to serve as the leader of a Shiite mosque in Buenos Aires in the 
mid-1980's. There have been other trips by Iranian and Afghan 
Jihad leaders to Buenos Aires, as there have been to the United 
States. 

Iran collaborates with other radical movements such as the Pal- 
estinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas. Last week, Secretary of State 
Warren Christopher told this body that Hizballah and Iran must 
be contained. He articulated a criticism of those countries that con- 
tinue to engage in commercial trade relations with Iran. But isolat- 
ing Iran is simply not enough. 

Hizballah today operates under the full protection of Syria. In 
fact, all of the Hizballah main training bases are located in the 
Bekaa Valley under the total sovereignty of Syria. Much of 
Hizballah's weaponry are sent through Damascus by air and then 
truck convoys through Syrian military lines. 

Syria uses Hizballah to attack Israeli targets in the South as an 
appendage of its foreign policy. It believes such attacks place pres- 
sure on Israel while giving Syria plausible deniability that it is in- 
volved in terror. This charade works because the West goes along 
with it. 

Ironically, Lebanon today still operates with total complicity of 
Syria even though the United States is trying to entice Syria into 
the peace talks. I will not prescribe this morning dilemmas regard- 
ing U.S. policy options. I believe there is a dilemma, but I also be- 
lieve that as a price for participation in the peace talks, Syria 
should be asked to finally close down its support for international 
terror groups. 

There is another irony. The United States itself today is a place 
where many of these radical groups have located themselves. Ac- 
cording to law enforcement and intelligence officials, most Middle 
East terror organizations and radical Islamic groups have estab- 
lished an extensive presence and in some cases their actual politi- 
cal headquarters right here in the United States. 

For the most part, these groups have not carried out terrorist at- 
tacks on American soil with the exception last year of the attack 
on the World Trade Center. However, we are becoming fast beyond 
the point when we can count on such rational self-calculations. 

Some Western security officials with whom I have recently spo- 
ken believe that the bombing of Jewish and Israeli targets in Lon- 
don and Buenos Aires can be contained to Jewish and Israeli tar- 
gets. Not only is such a distinction invidious, it is only a matter 
of time before the anti-Western ideology driving these attacks esca- 
lates into further attacks on non-Middle East targets. 

The notion that peace in the Middle East will assuage radical Is- 
lamic groups or that some form of Western reconciliation is possible 
with radical groups is woefully mistaken. 

Hizballah and Iran's argument with Israel is not over specific Is- 
raeli acts. Contrary to a point raised last week by a distinguished 
columnist in the New York Times, the terrorist causes of the bomb- 



15 

ings in Argentina and England cannot be rationally solved anymore 
than the death threats against Salman Rushdie can be revolved by 
appeasing the radical fundamentalists making the threat. 

These bombings should finally force the West to wake up to the 
new battle front that it is facing — an era of unalterable, violent, 
anti-Western, anti-Jewish, anti-Christian, and antimoderate Mus- 
lim rage. Coupled with the bombing of the World Trade Center last 
year, these bombings show that radical Islamic militants have now 
taken their battle from their homelands into the heart of enemy 
territory, the West. 

In short, it will require concerted action by all countries to co- 
ordinate their intelligence systems, asylum, security procedures 
and immigration policies to protect civilians from increasingly be- 
coming the new front line in the unfolding wave of terrorism. 

Thank you. 

[The prepared statement of Mr. Emerson appears in the appen- 
dix.] 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you very much, Mr. Emerson. 

We will have a number of questions as soon as we hear from our 
other distinguished witness. 

Before calling on you, Mr. Beraja, on behalf of the Congress of 
the United States, I want to express our profound condolences and 
sympathies and anguish at the tragedy that your community suf- 
fered in Argentina. We are very pleased to have you. 

We are grateful to you that in the midst of what is an extremely 
difficult and trying time you decided to accept our invitation and 
fly up from Buenos Aires. 

You may proceed any way you choose. 

STATEMENT OF RUBEN BERAJA, PRESmENT, DELEGATION OF 
ARGENTINE JEWISH ASSOCIATIONS (DAIA) 

Mr. Beraja. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. We know the 
feeling of the American people about this subject. 

I thank you at first for the concerns of the subcommittee under 
your leadership to consider in this hearing the criminal terrorist 
attack that took place in my country on July 18, 1994. 

Taking into consideration the very good relationship that exists 
between Argentina and the United States, the international reper- 
cussions of the terrorist threat, the traditional solidarity of your 
country with the Jewish people, and the influence that the United 
States has in the world, I decided to accept your invitation so that 
through this significant body, the Congress of the United States 
may commit its strong action to face such a threat. 

I come as an Argentinean committed to democracy and human 
rights with the idea of peace and harmony without prejudice or dis- 
crimination. As such and as a Jew, I preside over DAIA, the rep- 
resentative organization of the Argentinean Jewish institutions, 
and an affiliate of the World Jewish Congress. 

But I am convinced that I don't speak only for myself nor only 
for the organization I represent, but on behalf of millions of fellow 
Argentinians of various beliefs and ideologies who share the con- 
demnation of terror who are committed with life, freedom and the 
rule of law. 



16 

Please see me also as another survivor of the attack — and this 
should be taken literally — because our DAIA offices were located in 
the same AMIA building that was totally destroyed. 

Before addressing in depth our issue, I wish to pay heartfelt trib- 
ute to the memory of the martyrs of July 18, to offer a prayer for 
the recovery of the wounded and comfort to the bereaved families. 

Mr. Lantos. If I may stop you for a moment. I understand that 
there are still a number of individuals whose bodies have not yet 
been recovered and unfortunately it is a realistic assumption that 
they have also perished. 

Mr. Beraja. Yes. 

Mr. Lantos. Adding the number of confirmed dead to the num- 
ber who are missing and, under this set of circumstances, pre- 
sumed dead, how many individuals will have died in this terrorist 
attack? 

Mr. Beraja. 104. 

Mr. Lantos. 104. 

How many of those are children? 

Mr. Beraja. Seven are children. 

Mr. Lantos. What are the ages approximately of the seven chil- 
dren? 

Mr. Beraja. Six, 8, and 12; also some young people, teenagers 
also. 

Mr. Lantos. So a 6-year-old is the youngest victim? 

Mr. Beraja. Yes. 

Mr. Lantos. And how many women in the group? 

Mr. Beraja. I don't have exactly the numbers at this time, but 
there are a lot of women, a lot of young women, mothers and many, 
many also, all the women — and the family also were in this attack. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you. 

Please go ahead. 

Mr. Beraja. At the same time, I wish to point out before the 
world that millions of Argentinians, charitable institutions, dig- 
nitaries of the various religious beliefs, political parties, labor 
unions, professional associations, the Armed Forces, artists, intel- 
lectuals, students and all governmental powers, led by President 
Menem, shared the anguish and pain in a public rally that con- 
stituted and example of brotherhood and solidarity that honor the 
Argentinean people. 

Similarly, I wish to point out the devoted effort of the security 
forces, of the rescuers and medical personnel, as well as the thou- 
sands of anonymous volunteers that worked without dismay in the 
midst of so much destruction. 

The sounds of the murderous explosions have ceased, but not its 
sequels. 

Among them, I wish to underscore the fear generated in vast sec- 
tors of the population based on their inability to understand how 
and why a community center can be attacked with such cruelty, a 
center dedicated to the common good, to religious services to social 
welfare and education, to promote culture and develop activities for 
young people. 

That is the mission of the AMIA, which has just celebrated 100 
years of service, being one of the most important organizations of 



17 

its kinds in the Jewish world and certainly the largest in Latin 
America. 

Fear, the legitimate reaction of people who face a brutal and ap- 
parently uncontrollable threat, generates such undesirable and 
painful effects as seeing the victims of terrorism as potential threat 
to them, as if the victims were the criminals and generating at- 
tempts of segregation that would severely affect the principle of 
pluralism. 

Mr. Lantos. Let me be sure I understand. 

What you are saying is that following this outrageous and hei- 
nous terrorist attack, there are some who want to separate them- 
selves from the targets of the attack, thereby presumably protect- 
ing themselves so they will not be in the vicinity of these people? 

Mr. Beraja. That is correct. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you. 

Mr. Beraja. Although it hurts to admit it, it is true that for cir- 
cles, today Argentinean Jews are considered a potential source of 
danger and therefore there is an attempt to create a separation be- 
tween Jews and non-Jews in a reappearance of attitudes that we 
believed had been definitively eradicated from Argentinian society. 

This constitutes a significant challenge for our society and espe- 
cially for the government so as not to allow that the long struggle 
to eliminate all forms of discrimination and particularly anti-Semi- 
tism be frustrated. 

In a climate of tension and confusion, we have witnessed expres- 
sions inspired in the anti-Semitic prejudice, including its modern 
version, anti-Zionism, and coming in times of such sorrow for the 
Jewish community. We don't minimize the potential threats and 
don't take it lightly. 

President Carlos Menem has shared our concern and reiterated 
his commitment to neutralize those alarm signals. The next few 
weeks will allow us to evaluate with greater clarity the develop- 
ment of this serious issue and we will be able to draw more definite 
conclusions. 

Mr. Lantos. So I am clear exactly in what you are saying is, 
some elements of Argentine society you are suggesting are moving 
toward a reghettoization of the Jewish communities because they 
feel that if the Jewish community lives in an unsegregated manner 
in Argentine society as a whole, the whole of society will be in dan- 
ger of similar terrorist attacks in the future? 

Mr. Beraja. Yes. 

It is our hope that a downward trend that was taking place in 
our country vis-a-vis anti-Semitism, that allowed me to report to 
this same subcommittee in early February of this year, on a posi- 
tive tone may be ratified without any doubt in the near future. 

We trust that several measures the Argentinean Government is 
adopting, such as the struggle against discrimination and anti- 
Semitism, the active repudiation of the presence of Nazi war crimi- 
nals in our country, and the initiatives that it has proposed nation- 
ally and internationally regarding the fight against terrorism, will 
contribute toward this goal. 

The savage attack against the headquarters of AMIA and DAIA 
is undergoing a thorough investigation, both by the courts as well 
as the security and intelligence agencies, and public opinion is anx- 



18 

iously waiting for the identification and apprehension of those re- 
sponsible, directly and ideologically, both coming from outside the 
country as well as from within it. 

Mr. Lantos. If I may stop you again, the attack against the Is- 
raeli Embassy 2V2 years ago has not yet been solved; is that cor- 
rect? 

Mr. Beraja. That is so. 

Mr. Lantos. There is not a single individual who has been 
brought to justice as a result of that dastardly attack? 

Mr. Beraja. That is true. 

Mr. Lantos. Do you think there is any merit to the speculation 
that one reason Argentina was selected as a site of this latest ter- 
rorist attack is because there was a failure to bring to justice the 
perpetrators of the earlier attack? 

Mr. Beraja. I agree. I said this in a public speech and I said why 
Argentina can't solve this problem, the attack of the embassy — we 
are the target, a new target for the terrorists. 

Mr. Lantos. Please. 

Mr. Beraja. It is necessary to indicate now as I am speaking 
now about this — it is necessary to indicate that to the commotion 
caused by this terrorist attack on the AMIA, was added the frustra- 
tion for the lack of concrete results of the investigation regarding 
the attack suffered by the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires in 1992. 
Such a circumstance has special relevance today because it is a 
negative precedent regarding the ability of the State to punish 
international terrorism. 

I wish to 

Mr. Lantos. Let me just say that in this very room last Thurs- 
day, we held a hearing on the Pan Am 103 bombing which took 
place almost 6 years ago. Where you are seated, we had six 
women — mothers, and wives of victims of the Pan Am 103 terrorist 
attack — and they cried out in anguish about our own government's 
failure to take any concrete steps thus far to bring the perpetrators 
to justice. 

The two identified perpetrators of that terrorist attack are still 
in Libya and the civilized world is standing by as Libya defies the 
civilized world's demand to extradite them for a court trial. 

Argentina is not alone in appearing impotent in the eyes of the 
international community in dealing with international terrorism 
and when the State Department's representative will appear in a 
few minutes, I will raise this issue again, as I did with her just last 
Thursday. 

Please go ahead. 

Mr. Beraja. I wish to underscore that it is a violation of our rule 
of law perpetrated on July 18 which left over 100 dead and more 
than 250 injured, took place in the framework of a democracy 
where public freedoms and human rights are highly respected, not- 
withstanding certain deficiencies in the system, which is in a state 
of transition. 

Exercising those same freedoms, which obviously include freedom 
of the press and of expression, I had the duty of presenting the po- 
sition of the Jewish community and of vast sectors of society with 
the President of Argentina in attendance without euphemisms and 
ambiguities. 



19 

I mention that speech as an example of the degree of freedom ex- 
isting in my country and it is fair to acknowledge that the behavior 
of the government in this respect and the merits of citizens of exer- 
cising their rights without limitations, without self-censorship, 
without fear, all of which do not belong in a true democratic sys- 
tem. 

I enclose a copy of that speech for the record because I believe 
it should be studied by this subcommittee. 

Mr. Lantos. Without objection, that speech will be included in 
the record. 

[The text of the speech appears in the appendix.] 

Mr. Beraja. The legitimate demands presented in that speech 
have found a positive echo in the government, which among others 
has implemented a series of security measures to protect Jewish in- 
stitutions by enforcing those in existence up to now and promised 
complementary actions within the framework of defense and for- 
eign relations policy. 

With reference to the resolution adopted by the Security Council 
of the United Nations at the request of the Argentine Government, 
we are not satisfied because such resolution makes no reference — 
for political motivations — to the fact that the attack was against 
the center of Argentinean Jewish life. ^ 

It must be clear that we have not yet satisfied all our aspira- 
tions, nor are we making any compromise in our strong demands 
to obtain effective answers to our concerns. 

Our nonpartisan character, our status as a nongovernmental or- 
ganization, autonomous and independent by tradition and by prin- 
ciple, gives us the authority to fulfill this active role with a cer- 
tainty that through it we are contributing to the strengthening of 
the democracy and defending legitimate interests of society as a 
whole. 

With that same authority, we express before this distinguished 
body our call to face fundamentalist terrorism, of which Argen- 
tina — at the very heart of the Jewish community — has been the vic- 
tim in this case. 

We still have time to prevent indifference from allowing the de- 
velopment of Nazism and the crimes it committed, is not repeated 
in the face of an ideology that does not hide its genocidal fanati- 
cism, its terrifying violence and total disregard for human life. 

Based on what has been previously said, we consider it appro- 
priate to request the following: 

One, to the respected Congress of the United States as represent- 
atives of the people, view the terrorist attack as a highly serious 
example of the dangers of international terrorism, and con- 
sequently articulate legislative measures to help defeat this dan- 
gerous threat to peace and harmony among people. 

Two, within the same context, we request that the initiatives re- 
cently proposed by Argentinian Foreign Minister to the Security 
Council of the United Nations be supported. 

Three, that the United States continue to provide maximum co- 
operation to Argentina as requested toward the goal of finding 
those responsible for the criminal attack. 

Four, we are also confident that the U.S. Congress will promote 
at the United Nations those policies that would involve the organi- 



84-344 - 94 - 2 



20 

zation to seek sanctions against those member states who support 
or protect terrorists. With the same intent, we hope that the Group 
of Seven will join their efforts toward the same goals. 

Five, we also respectfully request the Congress of the United 
States to support our forthcoming requests to the European Union, 
within the same goals. 

Six, it is natural to suggest to the Organization of American 
States that added to their public condemnation of the attack, it 
adopts a resolution in order to work together to prevent and com- 
bat international terrorism. 

The forthcoming Hemispheric Summit that will take place in De- 
cember in Miami must be the opportunity, as announced by Sec- 
retary of State Mr. Warren Christopher, for the heads of state to 
effectively express their solidarity with victims of terrorism and 
adopt adequate decisions. 

Mr. President, we have to face international terrorism. Everyone 
is a potential victim and no one has the right to remain indifferent. 
Democratic societies constitutes the only way of life that ensures 
the protection and the rights of all its citizens. As a believer, I ap- 
peal to the spiritual leaders of all faiths so that in each prayer they 
ask for respect, harmony and peace between all human beings. 

As a descendant of immigrant Jews coming from Syria, where as 
in other countries of the region, Jews and Muslims coexisted in the 
past, I call upon them so that they do not allow those within their 
midst who abhor the spiritual values of their faith, committing hor- 
rible crimes under its name. 

We urge them instead to join those who are actively promoting 
the peace process between Israel and the Arab countries for the 
benefit of all the peoples of the region and world peace. 

Mr. Chairman, every human being has the right to enjoy the fun- 
damental freedoms, and governments have the responsibility of en- 
suring them. Today we witness with great concern that one of 
those essential freedoms is in danger, the freedom from fear. Every 
one of us, to the extent of his or her responsibilities must join ef- 
forts to stop the threat of terrorism. 

Argentinean society has made it very clear: We stand together 
against terrorism. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you very much, Mr. Beraja. That was a very 
moving statement. 

[The prepared statement of Mr. Beraja appears in the appendix.] 

Mr. Lantos. We will begin the questioning with Congressman 
Oilman. 

Mr. Oilman. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

I regret the delay caused by my having to be in my district in 
New York earlier that morning. I commend you. Chairman Lantos, 
for arranging this timely hearing. We hope as a result of this hear- 
ing to get some important details and perspectives of the horrors 
that we have witnessed over the last few weeks with regard to 
international terrorism in far different parts of the globe. 

I am cognizant, however, that we are now at a very early stage 
in the inquiry into these deadly incidents, and that speculation 
may outrun the eventual evidence. We won't know all the facts 



21 

until all the evidence and intelligence gathering and investigations 
are fully completed. 

The recent terrorist incidents in Buenos Aires aboard the Pan- 
amanian commercial airline flight and in London may well be con- 
tinents apart, but the results and impact are the same the world 
over. Innocent lives have been lost to the cowardly and deadly ter- 
rorists bombs and attacks, all intended to illegitimately influence 
the course of peace and human progress in the world today. 

We must not surrender progress in human advancement to those 
who do not have the courage or even the decency to engage in le- 
gitimate debate, nor does any grievance or concern justify such de- 
plorable and unlawful conduct against peaceful progress in the 
Middle East or anywhere else on the globe. 

Former President Nixon a few years ago said of another cowardly 
and deadly terrorist incident, the Pan Am 103 bombing, "I have no 
single answer to the problem of terrorism," said President Nixon, 
"but from experience, I know that our Government's policy must be 
one of relentless investigation of such incidents and punishment 
which will fit the crime of those responsible including governments 
which subsidize terrorism for whatever reason." 

President Nixon's advice was appropriate then for our Nation 
and is just as wise advice today for nations of the world, whether 
they are targets of this violence or not, and for all those who cher- 
ish world order and hope for peaceful and lasting solutions to all 
hatreds, conflicts and bitterness. 

I warned the Clinton administration early in 1993 that we must 
not let down our guard against a threat of international terrorism 
both at home and abroad, witness the Trade Center bombing in 
February of 1993 and these latest incidents around the globe. For 
that reason, I opposed the proposed elimination of the high-level 
and visible Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism at the 
State Department reporting directly to the Secretary of State, and 
I am pleased that the Congress went along with that proposal. 

Our Nation and the entire international community must main- 
tain our guard and vigilance against the threat of today's terror- 
ism. Today's hearing should provide us with the vivid evidence of 
the costs and horrors of such threats, and we welcome the oppor- 
tunity for your views and the views of those of us involved in this 
to go on the record. 

ANTITERRORISM MEASURES IN ARGENTINA FOLLOWING THE 1992 
ATTACK ON THE ISRAELI EMBASSY 

I do have a few questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The modus operandi of the terrorists who struck 2 weeks ago in 
Buenos Aires is nearly identical to that used against the embassy, 
the Israeli Embassy in Argentina in 1992. 

Can you tell us, are there steps that the Argentine Government 
failed to take after the 1992 attack that might have prevented this 
tragic reoccurrence? Was there any lapse in the security that could 
have been avoided? Why was no one ever arrested with regard to 
the 1992 embassy attack? 

Mr. Beraja. I would like to answer in Spanish and ask my as- 
sistant to translate. 

Mr. Oilman. Fine. 



22 

Would you identify yourself please? 

Mr. Neuburger. Alfredo Neuburger, executive director of DAIA, 
the representative body of the Argentinean Jewish community. 

I will translate for my president. 

Mr. Oilman. Please proceed. 

Mr. Beraja. Because this is a very technical and political issue 
and I need to be very clear. 

[Through the translator!. When the bomb exploded in the Israeli 
Embassy in 1992, the country faced a totally unexpected phenom- 
ena. There was no previous indication or idea that international 
terrorism would hit in our country. 

The capability and information that the intelligence services and 
the security forces in Argentina had before that event, this was 
told to us by appropriate officials, was by no means capable of hav- 
ing the adequate means to face this kind of threat before that at- 
tack. 

After the 1992 attack, they started to study the phenomenon to 
deal with it, to get involved and to seek and obtain cooperation 
from other governments and intelligence organizations to face it. 

After the attack on the embassy, the security forces implemented 
special protection for Jewish organizations, including the building 
that was destroyed 2 weeks ago, which had police personnel 24 
hours a day since 1992. 

And also the Jewish organizations adopted security measures 
within their own buildings with the knowledge of the specific au- 
thorities. 

I will have to say what was lacking — and I am not referring yet 
to the investigation by the courts — is that there was probably inad- 
equate evaluation of the potential danger after the attack on the 
embassy. 

Probably nobody believed that an organization dedicated to sei-v- 
ice would be the potential objective of such a criminal attack. 

Mr. Oilman. You mentioned that there was police security pro- 
vided to the embassy since 1992. Was that security in place during 
this incident? 

Mr. Beraja. Yes. The police personnel were there and both po- 
licemen were wounded during the attack. 

Even if we had four policemen or more, it is almost impossible 
to stop that kind of car bomb attack. That is why we always insist 
that this phenomena of international terror has to be a political de- 
cision of the world to attack it in its own bases at its own origins 
where they can start to act against civilians. 

Mr. Oilman. How many police were assigned to the embassy? 

Mr. Beraja. According to official sources we have received, there 
was one policeman who was supposed to be guarding the entrance 
of the embassy and he was not there when the embassy was at- 
tacked in 1992. 

Mr. Oilman. That was in 1992. What about the current attack? 

Mr. Neuburger. The current attack, there were two policemen 
with the patrol car close to the door of the building. 

Mr. Oilman. They were just slightly injured? 

Mr. Neuburger. We don't have the magnitude of their injuries, 
but the car was parked some 90 to 100 feet from the place where 
the car bomb hit the building. 



23 

Mr. Oilman. Did the car bomb hit the building near the entrance 
way? 

Mr. Neuburger. Just by the entrance of the building, yes. 

Mr. Oilman. I am asking now the witness, and you are testify- 
ing. 

How far from the entrance way was the car parked? 

Mr. Beraja [through the translator]. Ten to 5 meters from the 
main entrance of the building that was the usual place where 
the 

Mr. Oilman. So that is just a few feet from the main entrance 
and the police car was several hundred feet away; is that what you 
are telling me? 

Mr. Neuburger. Maybe I was mistaken. 

Mr. Oilman. Let the witness testify. 

Mr. Beraja [through the translator]. The patrol car of the police 
was parked approximately 15 meters from the entrance. The car 
bomb hit the building right at the entrance and went into the 
building, exploding inside the building. That is why the major ef- 
fect was within the building and there was also, of course, exten- 
sive damage in the street. 

Mr. Oilman. I am not certain I understand that the car bomb 
went into the building when the car was parked outside the build- 
ing and so was the police car outside the building. If there was that 
extensive damage to the building, how is it the police car escaped, 
if they were that close to the building? 

Mr. Beraja. The police car was almost totally destroyed. The po- 
licemen were not sitting necessarily inside the car. They were al- 
ways standing around it, but the police car had extensive damage. 

IVIr. Oilman. And then where were the policemen at the time this 
occurred? 

Mr. Beraja. One was in the car. One was in front of the AMIA. 
One was in AMIA buying something. 

Mr. Oilman. There were only two policemen assigned to this 
building; is that right? 

Mr. Beraja. Yes. 

Mr. Oilman. I understand that there were a number of warnings 
about possible attacks on this embassy. Do you have any informa- 
tion about that? 

Mr. Beraja. Since 1992 after the Israeli Embassy was attacked, 
we took as a possibility the fact that there could be attacks against 
Jewish organizations in the country. 

In the building that was recently destroyed in December 1992, 
we received a telephone threat about a possible bomb and the 
building was evacuated without any further incident. 

Mr. Oilman. Are you aware of any warnings of the United States 
with regard to a possible attack on the embassy? 

Mr. Beraja. No, I don't know. 

Mr. Oilman. You are not aware of that. But there were other 
warnings that the Jewish community received about possible at- 
tacks by terrorists, is that what you are telling us? 

Mr. Beraja. No. We received threats, as mentioned, and some in- 
dications that there could be a danger of attacks, and since April 
of this year, the Argentinean police reinforced some security meas- 
ures at Jewish institutions. 



24 

Mr. Oilman. Were any of those warnings or threats turned over 
to the Argentine Government when you received them? 

Mr. Beraja. We permanently kept contact with the Argentinean 
Government, informed them of every incident regularly, and dis- 
cussed appropriate measures with the government. 

Mr. Oilman. Were any barricades placed in front of the buildings 
as a result of these threats? 

Mr. Beraja. No, they were not. 

Mr. Oilman. Can you tell us what you know about the borders 
of Argentina? Are they open borders that allow pretty much free- 
dom of access to Argentinians? 

Mr. Beraja. This is a serious problem in Argentina, the border 
problem. We have urged the authorities to take action in terms of 
a better control of those borders specifically in the northeast of the 
country bordering areas where we know that there are fundamen- 
talist groups settled. 

Mr. Oilman. Have any steps been taken to try to close those bor- 
ders or to make them more secure? 

Mr. Beraja. There has been no progress or solutions — I have to 
say that the cooperation of Brazil is essential for the objective that 
you have stated, and Paraguay, and we intend to pursue this with 
these governments. 

Mr. Oilman. One other question, Mr. Chairman. 

What about the airport safety? Has there been any attempt to 
make the airport safety more secure? 

Mr. Beraja. There has been a change in Argentina in terms of 
security conception and we are urging that solutions be imple- 
mented and President Menem has committed himself to enhance 
and improve any needed security measures in the country. 

potential impact of eliminating the independent coordinator 

FOR COUNTERTERRORISM POSITION 

Mr. Oilman. Mr. Chairman, one more question of Mr. Emerson. 

Last year, the State Department unsuccessfully tried to elimi- 
nate the high-level position of Independent Coordinator for 
Counterterrorism. In your opinion, is that the best way for our Na- 
tion to try to combat international terrorism? 

Mr. Emerson. The policy of this administration to eliminate the 
high-level coordinator post was a very bad decision. The operative 
word in fighting terrorism is coordination, and this requires some- 
one to serve as a traffic cop, coordinating all the intelligence, pol- 
icy, and security issues and not just whether airports are safe. In 
the end, there has to be someone who will push for effective steps 
to be taken against Iranian diplomats who use the diplomatic 
pouch to traffic in explosives or there will not be a victory against 
terrorism. 

To the extent that there is not a high-level person in the admin- 
istration willing to forcefully argue, and argue repeatedly that the 
administration has to adopt counterterrorism policies, because as 
you know, many in the State Department are articulating other in- 
terests, and counterterrorism is only one of several interests in the 
foreign policy, but someone needs to be pushing that point of view. 

Unless there is someone pushing that point of view, there will 
not be an effective counterterrorism policy articulated. 



25 

Mr. Oilman. Thank you. 

I would like to submit a statement submitted to me by Rabbi Avi 
Weiss in his position as national president of the Coalition for Jew- 
ish Concerns and Senior Rabbi of the Hebrew Institute of River- 
dale. 

Rabbi Weiss has just returned from Argentina after an extensive 
review of this terrorist incident. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Lantos. Without objection. 

Thank you very much. 

[The prepared statement of Rabbi Weiss appears in the appen- 
dix.] 

POSSIBLE STEPS TO COUNTER INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM 

Mr. Lantos. Mr. Emerson, if you were appointed Coordinator for 
Counterterrorism, what steps would you advocate that have not yet 
been taken by our Government? 

Mr. Emerson. One of the first steps that I would do is assemble 
an intelligence data bank that local and international law enforce- 
ment would have available to them in monitoring the flow of people 
into their countries. Too often at any Consular Office around the 
world either belonging to the United States or other countries, 
someone walks in and asks for a visa and depending upon the 
mood of the Consular Officer or depending upon the status of their 
computer system or upon their ability to write a foreign-sounding 
name, the person requesting the visa will likely get into the United 
States or other countries. 

Mr. Lantos. This subcommittee held extensive hearings on how 
Sheik Rahman obtained the privilege of repeatedly entering the 
United States when, in fact, there was information available indi- 
cating that he should never be allowed into the United States. So 
you are right on target on that one. 

Any others? 

Mr. Emerson. I would also coordinate policies regarding the use 
of, by foreign governments, their diplomatic facilities to either con- 
duct surveillance overseas or actually use the diplomatic pouch for 
illicit purposes. 

I believe the Iranian Government has consistently done this. I 
also believe that there are other countries that may not support di- 
rectly such attacks as in Argentina, but also facilitate it, countries 
like Syria which is in the mid-level of countries that facilitate 
international terrorism because of the sovereignty they exercise 
over countries like Lebanon, which is the largest terrorist base in 
the world today. 

Mr. Lantos. What specific international steps would you rec- 
ommend at this stage to diminish Iran's ability to perpetrate ter- 
rorist acts around the globe? 

Mr. Emerson. First of all, I think that had the Argentinean Gov- 
ernment and other governments in 1992 initiated a series of severe 
steps, including the possible expulsion of the Iranian diplomats 
from Argentina, I can't say for sure, but the chances would have 
been reduced that they would have repeated the same act 2 years 
later. 



26 

I don't believe that countries in Europe are willing to take the 
threat seriously for various reasons. One is there are certain kinds 
of Faustian deals that countries conduct with Iran, which is simple: 
We will turn a blind eye to some of your activities as long as you 
don't target our civilians. 

Germany for a long time turned a blind eye to Iranian terrorists 
on German soil in exchange for an implicit agreement that they 
would not attack German targets. I would strongly advocate that 
any regime that allows terrorists onto its soil be penalized. 

The third thing I would do is to advocate a coordinated asylum 
policy. It is ridiculous that Canada allows certain Hizballah terror- 
ists asylum. If you acquire asylum in Canada, you are entitled to 
a passport. So if you can't come in through the front door at JFK, 
you can come through the border up North. This problem exists in 
Europe as well. 

ROGUE REGIMES AND MORAL SUASION 

Mr. Lantos. You mentioned the Salman Rushdie affair. It indi- 
cates a degree of shamelessness on the part of the Iranian regime 
which has a contract out on Rushdie's life. If a government is pre- 
pared to publicly advocate the assassination of an individual whose 
sole crime is that he wrote something the government does not 
like, what pressure in terms of moral suasion or argument do you 
think might be effective in applying to that government? Or is 
there any argument, any exposure in the arena of public affairs, 
that would have any impact on a government like this? 

Mr. Emerson. That is a very good point. The Rushdie affair — 
many tire of hearing about it, but it bears repeating. First there 
is a man who is in permanent hiding. No. 2 

Mr. Lantos. He is in permanent hiding not for anything he has 
done, but for things he has written. 

Mr. Emerson. Yes, and he is in hiding in the West. He is not 
in hiding in the Middle East. The same threat has now been issued 
against a woman writer in Bangladesh. The fact is that the private 
sector in the United States and in Europe showed an extreme 
amount of cowardice in response to the threats by Iran and sup- 
porters about not publishing subsequent editions, about not spon- 
soring Rushdie. I believe the private sector took its lead from the 
public sector, and I don't believe the U.S. or British Government 
has done enough to publicly show its absolute revulsion for what 
has happened with Salman Rushdie. 

President Clinton met with him, which was a courageous and a 
brave thing to do. On the other hand, a day or two later when 
asked at a press conference why he did, he diminished the signifi- 
cance of his meeting by saying he only met with him for 2 minutes. 

I think this communicated to the Iranians and supporters that 
there was fear in the West that they have succeeded in sending a 
chilling signal to Americans and to Brits that if they don't toe the 
line on issues that the Iranians consider close to their heart, then 
Americans and Brits will be endangered. 

I have seen this repeatedly in the United States even regarding 
our own media where certain issues are not raised because of the 
Rushdie factor, I call it, the factor that somehow there would be 
physical retribution in the United States or abroad because of acts 



27 

we take that are fully consistent with our Constitution and I think 
representative of the democracy that we have always had in this 
country. 

Mr. Lantos. I want to thank all three of you gentlemen for your 
most valuable contributions. This subcommittee will not rest until 
the fight against international terrorism is put on the national 
agenda. Your assistance in this endeavor has been most appre- 
ciated. 

Thank you very much. 

Our final witness this morning is Ms. Barbara Bodine, Coordina- 
tor for Counterterrorism for the Department of State. We are very 
pleased to have you. 

You appeared before us just a few days ago in connection with 
the Pan Am 103 tragedy — almost 6 years old as a case, still no res- 
olution. We are now asking you to comment on the wave of inter- 
national terrorist attacks in Argentina, Panama, and the United 
Kingdom. 

There is obviously increased security in the United States — there 
wasn't an individual watching television who did not see the huge 
garbage trucks being drawn around diplomatic facilities in New 
York. It is unacceptable to many of us that, as citizens of the one 
remaining superpower in the world, there should be an atmosphere 
of fear permeating this society in anticipation of terrorist attacks 
by extremists — Islamic thugs who have no regard for human life 
but are hell bent on pursuing their objectives by all means at their 
disposal. 

You have the responsibility as Coordinator for Counterterrorism, 
as the point person for our Government, to deal with these issues; 
and we are most grateful that you agreed recently to testify twice 
before us. 

Unfortunately, the issues warrant your coming with this degree 
of frequency. Your prepared statement will be entered in the record 
in its entirety. You may proceed in any way you choose. 

STATEMENT OF BARBARA A. BODINE, COORDINATOR FOR 
COUNTERTERRORISM, DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Ms. BODINE. Thank you. 

I agree that it is totally unacceptable that any nation and any 
people should have to adopt the kinds of extraordinary security 
measures that we have here and that we have elsewhere. 

And, of course, the fundamental purpose of the Office of the Co- 
ordinator for Counterterrorism is to work with both appropriate do- 
mestic agencies here, and with foreign governments around the 
world, to devise ways to both deter, resolve and, if necessary, re- 
spond to terrorism so that we can get rid of this scourge. 

I do appreciate the opportunity to testify again, and while it is 
always a pleasure to be here, I do regret the circumstances that 
bring me up here twice in a week. I do want to say that I would 
like to take this opportunity to extend on behalf of the Secretary 
of State and the entire Department our deepest sympathies for all 
the victims of the recent terrorist attacks in Buenos Aires, London, 
Panama, and the unrelated, but still tragic, attacks in Madrid and 
Northern Ireland last Friday. 



28 

I think it is particularly tragic and ironic that these attacks oc- 
curred just as prospects for peace in the Middle East are brighter 
than they have been in a century. Let me assure you that the 
forces opposed to a comprehensive peace in the Middle East will 
not meet their objectives by attacks on civilians literally thousands 
of miles away. 

In this regard, we are very deeply heartened at the recent mas- 
sive demonstration by 150,000 Argentinians that took place in Bue- 
nos Aires to demonstrate their solidarity with the families of the 
victims and their repudiation of the bombing. 

Just a few days ago we were up here discussing our response to 
Pan Am 103 and in many ways there are tragic parallels between 
that and the AMIA bombing. Just as Pan Am 103 demonstrated 
the callousness and savagery of international terrorism, so did the 
AMIA bombing. More importantly, the Pan Am 103 bombing and 
the similar acts of terrorism in the 1980's invigorated many states 
to combat terrorism through the application of the rule of law and 
by bringing pressure to bear on those few states that support ter- 
rorism. I trust that the AMIA bombing and the incidents that fol- 
lowed it will produce the same consequences for those who under- 
take such attacks and those governments that help make such at- 
tacks happen. 

I would like to explain what the U.S. Government has done, both 
in the aftermath of the AMIA bombing and a similar attack in 
1992 on the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires to assist the Govern- 
ment of Argentina in its efforts to investigate and to bring to jus- 
tice those responsible for this outrage, and more importantly, to 
deter future attacks. 

In 1992, and again following the AMIA bombing, we sent inves- 
tigative and forensic personnel to Buenos Aires to provide on-the- 
scene assistance to their Argentine counterparts. The team in- 
cluded representatives from the State Department's Bureau of Dip- 
lomatic Security, the FBI, and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Fire- 
arms. As a testament to how serious we saw this bombing and the 
need to provide the very best to the Argentinians to determine the 
cause and the perpetrators, we dispatched one of the FBI's top fo- 
rensic experts, the same man who had done the forensics at the 
World Trade Center. I will also say that that same man was sent 
onward to Panama to again apply his expertise. 

We do take this very seriously. In order to again help the Argen- 
tines, the forensic information has been brought back to the States. 
It will be processed in the FBI and ATF labs and for both, largely 
for continuity of evidence reasons, an Argentine expert has come 
along so that we can prosecute these people to the fullest. 

A very important point that I think we all agree and I heard the 
previous panel discuss is the need for an effective exchange of in- 
telligence. This is absolutely critical, both before and after an at- 
tack. All elements are working very closely, both within this gov- 
ernment and with other governments affected to try to identify 
those responsible. 

To help prevent such attacks happening in the future, we are 
also providing extensive training to Argentina. Among the courses 
that we have offered have been post-blast investigation, explosive 
incident countermeasures, and a terrorist interdiction seminar. We 



29 

also have a number of courses offered or planned for the future, 
and I have submitted a list of those for the record. 

We have been deeply concerned over the past several years over 
the development of a Hizballah presence in Latin America. Last 
spring we approached a number of governments throughout that 
region to express our concern over the Hizballah presence. Unfortu- 
nately, I will concede that the response from many of the govern- 
ments was inadequate at the time. 

We are, in the wake of this most tragic bombing, reinvigorating 
those initiatives. My successor, as you know, will be making a trip 
to about six key Latin American countries to discuss both 
Hizballah presence, Iranian Embassy presence, and possible steps 
that can be taken. And as a follow-on to that, we and the Argen- 
tines will be raising it at the Summit of the Americas looking for 
concrete steps in terms of intelligence cooperation, law enforcement 
cooperation, training, and other ways that we can deal with this. 

I would also like to address the issue of what group or groups 
might have undertaken this attack. The 1992 attack on the Israeli 
Embassy in Buenos Aires was clearly the work of Hizballah. 
Hizballah publicly claimed responsibility for the bombing of the 
embassy and when that claim was repudiated, it released a video 
to make sure that the world knew that it was responsible. 

This bombing of the last 2 weeks demonstrates, as well as the 
bombing of 1992, the global reach of terrorists, their international 
nature, and their willingness to attack soft targets, largely because 
of their symbolic value. 

The recent bombings, while we do not have any conclusive evi- 
dence, do bear the hallmarks of a Hizballah operation and a state- 
ment about the attacks has been made by a group using the name 
Ansar Al-Allah which appears to be an offshoot of Hizballah. 

Mr. Chairman, while this hearing has been called to address the 
recent AMIA incident, it is also important that I discuss briefly the 
apparent bombing of a commuter plane outside of Colon, Panama. 
This apparent act of aviation sabotage killed 21 people, including 
three Americans. It is too early to conclude definitively if the objec- 
tive of this attack was political in nature or perhaps a personal 
vendetta by a drug cartel. 

It is worth noting, however, that Ansar Al-Allah, when it issued 
its statement regarding the AMIA bombing, also included a ref- 
erence to the bombing of the aircraft in Panama, well before avia- 
tion experts had determined that the plane, in fact, had been 
bombed. 

Just as in the case of Argentina, we are working very closely 
with the Panamanian authorities, and as I said, we did dispatch 
the same forensic expert from Argentina to Panama. The National 
Transportation Safety Board and the FAA have also been involved 
in the investigation. Because three Americans were among the cas- 
ualties of this plane, the FBI is opening a case under its long-arm 
statute to prosecute whomever we may be able to determine was 
behind this. 

In a related matter, I think it is worth noting an another exam- 
ple of how far Iran will go in its reach to silence dissidents and to 
use violence. In June of this year, a gentleman, Mr. Moatamer and 
his family, fled Iran. He is a former government official in Tehran 



30 

and he and his family fled to Turkey and then managed to get to 
Cuba. 

After arriving there, the Iranian Embassy personnel forced them 
onto a flight to Caracas. When they were there, they were met by 
other Iranian personnel who essentially kidnapped him and his 
family in preparation for a forced repatriation. He and his family 
now thankfully are safe. 

The Government of Venezuela, I am pleased to state, has de- 
clared all the Iranian officials involved, as well as the Ambassador 
persona non grata. While this in and of itself is an interesting ex- 
ample of Iran's efforts, it also has a direct bearing on the current 
case. The Government of Argentina is investigating carefully infor- 
mation provided by Mr. Moatamer concerning the AMIA bombing. 

Last week we also saw two additional acts of international 

Mr. Lantos. Before you address the London bombing, let me stop 
you here for a minute. 

Ms. BODINE. Of course. 

Mr. Lantos. The Iranian Government has issued a statement de- 
nying that Mr. Moatamer was at any time an Iranian Government 
official. What is our information on this matter? 

Ms. BODINE. Our information is that the Iranian statement is not 
quite accurate, that by all the information that we have, he is a 
government official. I would say empirical evidence that there is 
something to this gentleman was the extreme lengths that the Ira- 
nian Government went to to try to get a hold of him and get him 
back to Iran. He clearly is of importance to the Iranian Govern- 
ment. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you. 

Ms. BODINE. As I said, we unfortunately had two additional acts 
of terrorism last week, this time in London. One target was the Is- 
raeli Embassy and the other was an office of a Jewish social service 
agency. Remarkably, almost miraculously, no one was killed in ei- 
ther one of these incidents, although some 20 persons were injured. 

The British, of course, have extensive experience in investigating 
bombings and they have not sought, nor did we offer, any technical 
assistance. But we do work very closely with them and we will be 
sharing information with them and try to see if there is a link be- 
tween these bombs and the others. 

Mr. Chairman, the events of the last 2 weeks demonstrate all too 
clearly that international terrorism remains a threat to democratic 
states and to their people throughout the world. At the same time, 
I do believe we are making progress in limiting the number of 
states willing to sponsor terrorism and the support they provide. 

We will be doing more in this regard as Secretary Christopher 
described in his testimony before this subcommittee last Thursday. 
Efforts such as those described by the Secretary and the longstand- 
ing policy objectives and programs that we pursue to 
counterterrorism are the best ways, we believe, to reduce further 
the perils posed by terrorism. The task is neither quick nor always 
successful, but I want to assure you and this subcommittee of the 
commitment of the State Department to do all that it can to meet 
this goal. 

Thank you. 



31 

[The prepared statement of Barbara A. Bodine appears in the ap- 
pendix.] 

IMPROVING THE U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT'S OFFICE OF 
COUNTERTERRORISM 

Mr. Lantos. Ms. Bodine, let me begin by asking a very broad 
question, which given the timing of your imminent departure as 
our Coordinator for Counterterrorism is an appropriate one. I want 
to commend you for a job very well done. 

Ms. BODINE. Thank you. 

Mr. Lantos. We are all in your debt; and as you leave the De- 
partment of State, you gain a new degree of freedom because you 
will no longer be under instructions and you will be able to speak 
your own mind. 

You still have a few more days when you are under instructions; 
but given that limitation, in what ways do you think that the Of- 
fice of Counterterrorism can be maae more effective and more 
central to the purposes that we seek, namely, to put an end to this 
nightmare of international terrorism? 

Ms. Bodine. I would like to begin by saying that these last al- 
most 3 years that I have been in S/CT have been probably the most 
interesting, if sometimes exhausting and certainly fulfilling time in 
my career. One of the primary reasons for that is learning what the 
U.S. Grovernment has put — what assets it has put on the effort to 
counterterrorism over the last 10 years and the people who are a 
part of that effort. 

There is, as you know, a standing structure, it is about 10 years 
old, that was developed in the mid-1980's to combat terrorism 
worldwide. It includes a number of elements of the executive 
branch, the CIA, the FBI, Justice, all of the key players that you 
would well imagine, and from time to time almost every other ele- 
ment of the government. 

There is a remarkable dedication among all of those people to 
working their part of the problem. It is one of the places where I 
have seen probably less turf battles than I have ever seen in my 
career, and I think this is something to be noted and commended. 

I think that the commitment of the Department to making sure 
that the role of the Coordinator, which is a very key role in this 
interagency process, has been confirmed by the selection of my suc- 
cessor who — I believe you have met him — is a senior officer of con- 
siderable experience, his name will also be going up to the Senate 
to be confirmed as Ambassador as well. 

I think what we have is we have something that is not broken. 
It doesn't really need to be fixed. It does need, I think, the atten- 
tion of Congress to help us fulfill some of the improvements that 
we would like to see. 

I mentioned the other day implementing language on conven- 
tions. There are a number of elements of the CT program that re- 
quire congressional appropriation and authorization, which we defi- 
nitely need. 

establishing a central intelligence bank 

Mr. Lantos. Well, how about this issue of a central intelligence 
bank? 



32 

Ms. BoDLNE. Yes, I did hear that. There is — as part of the inter- 
agency structure, there is a community counterterrorism board 
which includes 27 different government agencies, all of which ei- 
ther have sources of information that may be relevant and/or uses 
of the information. That information is shared. I think there is far 
more sharing of information than Mr. Emerson may fully appre- 
ciate. 

There is certainly a great deal in improving coordination between 
the FBI and the Agency, and certainly the State Department has 
taken enormous steps in the last year to accelerate our comput- 
erization program and also to much more effectively share informa- 
tion within embassies. 

I will be candid with you, there were times when sometimes po- 
litical sections would pick up information and not always think to 
give it to the consular section. 

Mr. Lantos. You know, it wasn't so long ago that we had a series 
of hearings on the issue of the blind sheik entering and reentering 
the United States while inciting his designs to murder in terrorism, 
culminating in the World Trade Center bombing. 

Can you assure us that such consular mistakes as the one in 
Sudan giving him his initial visa is no longer feasible? 

Ms. BoDiNE. I can assure you that both — every effort has been 
made to both upgrade the facilities available to consular officers, 
graduating from the 1920 microfiche into the 20th century world 
of computers. There has also been an enormous appreciation within 
the consular section and other sections of the need to very carefully 
vet these sort of people. 

I would take issue with one of the comments from the previous 
panel that checking names is something that is done on the whim 
of the consular officer and how they happen to feel that morning. 
There are very strict guidelines as to when and who names — whose 
names are supposed to be checked. 

I think one of the problems that we had in Khartoum was that 
we had very inadequate support mechanisms. That has been taken 
care of. Will there never, ever, ever be a mistake? It is human na- 
ture. Has every effort been made in terms of the facilities and the 
training of consular offiicers? Yes, I do believe that has been done. 

counterterrorism: going after the sponsors of terrorism 

Mr. Lantos. Now, in fighting terrorism, Ms. Bodine, we are real- 
ly talking about two entirely different kinds of things. We are talk- 
ing about tactical issues such as how do you prevent a suicide 
bomber from reaching an embassy site; and while these are very 
important, they really don't go to the core of the issue. And, the 
core of the issue is to go after the sponsoring governments. 

International terrorism in 1994 is increasingly a government- 
sponsored activity. You have been involved with meetings at the 
highest councils of our government in this field. Is there a deter- 
mination that you could detect to use whatever force is necessary 
to go to the source so that the perpetrators of international terror- 
ism at the top level are properly brought to justice? 

Ms. Bodine. The short answer is yes. You made the very proper 
distinction between what is technically antiterrorism, which is put- 



33 

ting up the physical barriers, and the counterterrorism, which is to 
prevent it. 

As I stated, you know, we have three goals in our office, which 
is to deter, to resolve, and respond; and obviously to deter comes 
first, if we can keep it from happening. State sponsorship has been 
the hallmark of contemporary terrorism. It is what distin- 
guishes 

Mr. Lantos. Just for the record, will you recite for us the coun- 
tries which are still on the list 

Ms. BODINE. Yes. 

Mr. Lantos [continuing]. Of countries that sponsor terrorism? 

Ms. BODINE. The State-sponsored list is Iran, Iraq, Syria, Libya, 
North Korea, Cuba, and Sudan which was added last summer. 

Mr. Lantos. Is there any intention of removing any of these in 
the foreseeable future from the list? 

Ms. BoDENE. No, there is no intention at all of removing any of 
them. There have been efforts by some to get themselves removed, 
and we have made it very clear to them that there are a number 
of steps that they need to take and they have not fulfilled them. 

As you know, while the Secretary has it within his discretion to 
put a state on the list, in order to take a state off the list, we must 
notify Congress and we certainly would and we would come infor- 
mally before the formal process. There is no effort at all to take 
anyone off at this time. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you very much. 

Congressman Oilman. 

PLACING TIGHTER RESTRICTIONS ON GRANTING VISAS 

Mr. Oilman. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I too want to commend 
Ms. Bodine for her excellent work during her tenure in the State 
Department and particularly in counterterrorism, and for her rec- 
ommendations with regard to the Pan Am 103 bombing which we 
heard last week. 

Ms. Bodine, under a 1990 change in our immigration laws, un- 
less an individual has been convicted in a full trial or we have evi- 
dence that he or she intends to commit a terrorist act within our 
country, the State Department has been reluctant to deny a visa 
to even a member of a terrorist group absent that kind of evidence. 

Don't you think it is time we closed that loophole and did some- 
thing about making more severe restrictions on granting a visa, 
even if we suspect that they are terrorists? 

Ms. Bodine. As you note, a lot of this comes from the change in 
the immigration law in 1990 where, as — to be honest, it was an end 
of the cold war thing to remove mere membership from grounds of 
exclusion, and it ended up covering terrorist groups as well, except 
at that time the PLO. 

We would take any information that someone is actively support- 
ing terrorism. It doesn't actually have to be conviction, but there 
has to be a known record of having actively, overtly supported acts 
of terrorism. 

The question of opening it up to mere membership in terrorist 
groups is something I know the Consular Bureau has looked at and 
reviewed, and feels that insofar as some groups have very broad 
concentric circles of what membership includes, that we may be 



34 

taking on a burden that would be so onerous that we could actually 
end up stressing our system to the point that we may not be able 
to find the people at the core. We need to keep our efforts focused 
on the core members, those that have track records, either verbal 
or criminal, to go after them. Tightening it is one thing. A blanket 
exclusion of all members is considered unwieldy and probably un- 
necessary. 

THE NECESSITY OF HAVING AN INDEPENDENT OFFICE FOR THE 
COORDINATION OF COUNTERTERRORISM 

Mr. Oilman. You and I had some discourse about the need for 
a Coordinator for Counterterrorism. As you are about to leave of- 
fice, what are your thoughts about the necessity for having an indi- 
vidual office for the coordination of counterterrorism? 

Ms. BoDENE. Well, the — I know that it is still considered an open 
question, that the amendment extended the independent life of S/ 
CT for 1 year and that there will be some hearings, I understand, 
early in 1995. 

I think what is important in considering the status of the office 
is to look at both who is selected for Coordinator and to look at the 
overall policy of the government. It is a question of focus and a 
question of importance, not really a question of where you fit in the 
bureaucracy in terms of layering. 

To be honest, you could have an independent office and a very 
weak coordinator. You could have the coordinator within a broader 
bureau and if it is a strong person with the right kind of back- 
ground and you have the proper attention from the administration, 
then they will be able to operate effectively. It is a question of in- 
tent, I think, rather than structure. 

Mr. Oilman. Well, I assume that you recognize how important 
the issue is. 

Ms. BoDiNE. Yes. 

THE priority OF COUNTERTERRORISM EFFORTS IN THE U.S. 

GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Oilman. How important the responsibility of our Oovern- 
ment is, no matter what we do with it, I welcome your thoughts 
about the kind of stress that we should be giving, the priority we 
should be giving in our battle against counterterrorism. 

Ms. BODINE. I think one of the things that has been clear, if 
nothing else, is the fact that we have had two hearings in almost 
that many days, it is a very clear high priority of the administra- 
tion. 

I think President Clinton has made that perfectly clear in some 
of his recent statements, including in the aftermath of these bomb- 
ings. It was very clear in the President's statement before the U.N. 
General Assembly last year, almost a year ago. It is certainly of the 
highest priority within the Department. I know that this is an 
issue that is taking the Secretary's personal attention at this time 
and it always does. 

I will state that regardless of where CT has been technically 
within the building, that in terms of having a hearing on the sev- 
enth floor, of having access on the seventh floor, of the issue being 



35 

taken seriously on the seventh floor, there has never been a ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Oilman. As you review these three incidents, the bombing in 
Argentina, the bombing in London, the one in Panama, did you see 
any common thread going through those? 

Ms. BODINE. I think just simply looking at both the modus ope- 
randi, as we said, the hallmarks of Hizballah and the public state- 
ments that have been made, Buenos Aires and Panama were 
claimed by Ansar Al-Allah, which is a known name of one of the 
Hizballah subgroups, and London was claimed by the movement 
for the oppressed, which is a slight variation again on a known 
subgroup. 

So I think between the question of the modus operandi and the 
names of — who have claimed it, we have a thread. We also have 
the threat that came from Fadlallah that these kind of attacks 
would be forthcoming and in the Ansar Al-Allah last statement fol- 
lowing Buenos Aires in Panama, there was a threat that there was 
more to come. Shortly thereafter, we had London. 

So I think all of the circumstantial evidence is there. We don't 
have any forensics right now, but we certainly have a great deal 
of circumstantial evidence. 

WARNINGS PRIOR TO THE RECENT TERRORIST ATTACK IN ARGENTINA 

Mr. Oilman. Ms. Bodine, did you send any information to the Ar- 
gentine Oovernment of any threats that we were aware of with re- 
gard to the Jewish community or the Israeli Embassy in Argentina 
prior to this incident occurring? 

Ms. Bodine. We were not aware of any specific threat to either 
one of those buildings prior to the attack. We have been discussing 
with the Argentine Government, at least since 1992 and the bomb- 
ing of the embassy, the question of Hizballah presence. 

As I said, we have undertaken a very active training program. 
The general issue of threat has been there and has been something 
we have been working on. A specific threat to either one of those, 
we were not aware of that. We would have shared it if we had 
known. 

recommendations to the argentine government on the issue 

of security 

Mr. Oilman. Did we make specific recommendations to the Ar- 
gentine Oovernment with regard to security, tightening up secu- 
rity? 

Ms. Bodine. We have had a number of discussions with them on 
security procedures in general. As I said, both some antiterrorism 
and counterterrorism training, and I am quite confident that the 
Israeli Government and the Israeli Embassy itself is in close con- 
tact with the Argentine Oovernment. 

Mr. Oilman. Were your recommendations pursued by the Argen- 
tine Government? 

Ms. Bodine. I don't know if each of them was pursued in detail, 
but I do know that the Argentine Government did take it seriously. 
Whether or not — and apparently obviously not; they were not ade- 
quate. But we did make the recommendations. I do not know the 



84-34A - 94 - 3 



36 

details of what was recommended, and I don't know the details of 
what was done. 

Mr. Oilman. Who made those recommendations to the Argentine 
Government? 

Ms. BODINE. A lot of it would have come — the kind of general 
recommendations would have come through a number of our train- 
ing courses. As I said, I think specific recommendations on security 
for both the Israeli Embassy and for some of the domestic organiza- 
tions probably would have come from the Israeli Government, 
which has its own very good track record and very strong series of 
recommendations. 

Mr. GiLMAN. But you are not aware of any of these recommenda- 
tions that were made? 

Ms. BODINE. Not the specific ones, no. 

Mr. GiLMAN. Did we make any recommendations with regard to 
the Argentine airport? 

Ms. BoDiNE. We have been involved with the Argentine airport. 
We have had some problems with it before. We are going to be tak- 
ing some additional steps with the Argentine Government to try to 
further increase their security there. 

As I said, another part that we have been looking at is the ques- 
tion of terrorist interdiction. We do have a major problem with an 
insecure area along the Argentine, Brazilian, Uruguay, and Para- 
guayan border. It is sort of a no-man's land, and this is an area 
that we have discussed with the Argentines as to how they might 
want to handle that as well. 

Mr. GiLMAN. Has the Argentine Government responded construc- 
tively to your recommendations? 

Ms. BODINE. We think they have responded constructively. It is 
a new issue. It is something they are still working on. Two years 
is not a very long time, unfortunately, in getting a handle on all 
of these kinas of recommendations. 

But we have found the Argentines cooperative. We have found 
them understanding. We have found them more than anxious to 
have any kind of help in training that we have, and they have 
made a very key point that obviously my successor, one of the 
central parts of his trip around Latin America is going to be to Ar- 
gentina and the Argentines have agreed to be cosponsors with us 
of having terrorism added to the Summit of the Americas. 

Mr. GiLMAN. Does your office have a record of any recommenda- 
tions that were made to the Argentine Government with regard to 
security, with regard to the airport, with regard to the borders? 

Ms. BoDiNE. We would have that at the office and I would be 
able to get some of that for you of course. 

Mr. GiLMAN. Mr. Chairman, I would like to request that our rec- 
ommendations that have been made to the Argentine Government 
with regard to tightening up security at both — at all three of these 
areas, the airport, the borders, and with regard to the embassy in 
the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, that it be made a part of 
the record. 

Mr. Lantos. Without objection. 

[The information follows:] 

Training in antiterrorism security matters has been provided to the Argentine 
Government on a broad range of topics by the Antiterrorism Assistance Program. 



37 

Each of the specific courses presents a total concept of security for that area, and 
has a formal set of objectives (which might be considered recommendations) which 
when fully implemented provide integrated security. However, the objectives are 
presented genericallv — not identified as applying to any specific building. A list of 
training which has been provided, and the objectives of that training is forwarded 
for the record. 

Ms. BODINE. I will note in the review of terrorist assistance 
training we have done for the Argentines, in 1992 we did do an air- 
port security assessment and that was one of the very first things 
that we did put down. In fiscal year 1993 we also did an airport 
security management course. So this has been a part of our train- 
ing, and I will get the details for you for the record. 

Mr. Oilman. Those were specific recommendations made in 
1992? 

Ms. BoDiNE. 1992 was the assessment. 1993 was the security 
management course. 

Mr. Oilman. Recommendations were made about 

Ms. BoDiNE. Recommendations would have been made during 
the course of that. 

Mr. Oilman. In 1993. 

Ms. Bodine. 1992 and 1993, that is correct. 

Mr. Oilman. As part of your report to us, would you indicate 
which of your recommendations were followed through by the Ar- 
gentine Oovernment? 

Ms. Bodine. I certainly will. 

Mr. Oilman. Thank you. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Lantos. Thank you very much, Congressman Oilman. 

Ms. Bodine, as a final word, may I just wish you the very best 
in your new endeavors. We will miss your appearances before this 
subcommittee, but we are deeply grateful for the outstanding work 
you have done. 

Ms. Bodine. Thank you very much. I appreciate that. 

Mr. Lantos. This hearing is adjourned. 

[Whereupon, at 12:25 p.m., the subcommittees were adjourned.] 



APPENDIX 



Opening Statement 
Hon. Tom Lantos, Chairman 

Subcommittee on Intemationai Security, 
International Organizations and Human Rights 

"International Terrorism: 
Buenos Aires, Panama and London" 
August 1, 1994 

The Subcommittee on Intemationai Security, Intemationai Crganizations and Human 
Rights and the Subcomminee on Westem Hemisphere Affain will come to order. Today, the 
Subcomminee will focus its attention on Intemationai terrorism in the aftemiath of the recent 
outbrealc of terrorist bombings in Buenos Aires, London, and possibly Panama. 

On the surface these terrorist bombings appear to be new attacks against Israeli and 
Jewish targets — the bomb in Buenos Aires was directed against the Jewish Community Center, 
and it was strikingly similar to a bombing against the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires just two 
years ago; the two bombs in London were directed against the Israeli embassy and against a 
Jewish community center there. In reality, however, we are facing a new and violent upsurge 
in a much broader, more insidious and dangerous war against civilized societies, against 
democracy and pluralism, against the West. 

Just a year and a half ago, one of the first series of hearings I conducted as Chairman 
of this subcommittee was on the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York. That 
terrorist attack resulted in the death of several people, the injury of hundreds, and property 
damage at astronomical levels. 

Last Thursday, this Subcomminee held yet another hearing on the terrorist attack against 
an .A.inencan aircraft — Pan Am Flight 103, which exploded over Lockerbee, Scotland. This 
terronst atrocity resulted in the deaths of over 250 people, including 189 American citizens — 
Catholics, Protestants, and Jews. 

The collapse of the Soviet Empire, which represented a global military threat to the 
civilized world, has now left the United States in a position that today there is no military force 
that can defeat us on the banlefield. But pain and suffering and chaos can be inflicted on the 
United States and on the civilized world by terrorists on the streets of our cities, in our airports, 
and on our aircraft. 

.A.nd the horror and destruction that we have seen already are only a small part of what 
we could see m the future. Just a.few weeks ago in this hearing room, the Subcommittee heard 
from tlie Director of Central Intelligence, James Woolsey, who testified of the potential danger 
of nuclear weapons falling into the hands of terrorists. Clearly the kind of people 

bombed who bombed the World Trade Center, and who carried out the series of 

boiiibmgs of the last few weeks are capable of seeking and using nuclear weapons, as well as 
clK-mical and biological weapons. 

(39) 



40 







STATEMENT BY 
THE AMBASSADOR OP ARGENTINA, 
HIS EXCELLENCY RAUL GRANILLO OCAMPO, 
ON THE OCCASION OF A 

JOINT MEETING OF THE SUBCOMMITTEES ON 

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, INTERNATIONAL 

ORGANIZATIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND ON WESTERN 

HEMISPHERE AFFAIRS OP THE COMMITTEE OP FOREIGN 

AFFAIRS OF THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ON 



INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM IN BUENOS AIRES, 
LONDON AND PANAMA 



WASHINGTON, D.C., AUGUST 1, 1994 



41 

INTRODUCTION 

THANK YOU MR. CHAIRMT^. I AM HONORED TO BE HERE THIS 
MORNING IN RESPONSE TO YOUR INVITATION TO THE GOVERNMENT 
OF ARGENTINA TO MAKE A STATEMENT ON THE RECENT BOMBING IN 
BUENOS AIRES OF THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARGENTINE- ISRAELI 
MUTUAL AID ASSOCIATION (A.M. I. A.) AND THE DELEGATION OF 
ARGENTINE ISRAELI ASSOCIATIONS (D.A.I. A.). 

MY STATEMENT WILL BE OFFERED IN THE SPIRIT OF 
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGAINST TERRORISM ALREADY 
ESTABLISHED BETWEEN OUR TWO GOVERNMENTS. 

IN A FEW MINUTES, YOUR SUBCOMMITTEES ON INTERNATIONAL 
SECURITY, INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS 
AND ON WESTERN HEMISPHERE AFFAIRS WILL CONDUCT A JOINT- 
HEARING TO EXAMINE RECENT INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ATTACKS 
ON ISRAELI AND JEWISH INSTITUTIONS AROUND THE WORLD, 
INCLUDING THE ONE CARRIED OUT EXACTLY A FORTNIGHT AGO IN 
ARGENTINA. 

YOUR WITNESSES' COMMENTS AND YOUR SUBCOMMITTEES' REPORTS 
WILL BE OF GREAT INTEREST TO MY GOVERNMENT AND ALSO 



42 

UNDERLINE THE TRULY INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE TERRORISTS 
WILL CONFRONT IN THEIR CRIMINAL ACTS. 

THE PACTS 



REGARDING WHAT OCCURRED IN ARGENTINA AND HOW IT MIGHT 
RELATE TO OTHER SIMILAR ATTACKS, LET ME FIRST RECALL THAT 
ON MONDAY, JULY 18TH, AT 09:57 A.M. BUENOS AIRES, CAPITAL 
AND MAJOR CITY OF ARGENTINA, WAS STRUCK BY INTERNATIONAL 
TERRORISM. 

THE A. M.I. A. /D.A.I. A. BOMBING HAS BEEN CONSIDERED THE 
MOST IMPORTANT TERRORIST INCIDENT IN ARGENTINE HISTORY 
AND THE MOST SERIOUS ATTACK ON A JEWISH COMMUNITY 
ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD SINCE WORLD WAR II, LEAVING 82 
PEOPLE DEAD, 227 INJURED AND 15 MISSING. AMONGST THEM WE 
COUNT THE POLICE DETACHMENT ON DUTY AT THE BUILDING. 

THIS ACT OF VIOLENCE ALSO DESTROYED A. M.I. A. 'S 
TRADITIONAL SEVEN- STORY BUILDING AND THE MANY DOCUMENTS 
IT CONTAINED BEARING TESTIMONY TO MORE THAN A CENTURY OF 



43 

JEWISH LIFE IN ARGENTINA. IT ALSO SERIOUSLY DAMAGED THE 
NEIGHBORHOOD. 

INITIAL EVALUATIONS INDICATE THAT A VAN CARRYING A 
DIRECTIONAL CHARGE HIT THE FRONT OF THE CONCRETE AND 
BRICK BUILDING. AS IT COLLAPSED, THE REST OF THE 
STRUCTURE FELL WITH IT. THE FACT THAT THE FOUNDATIONS 
REMAINED IN PLACE PROVES THAT THE EXPLOSION CAME FROM 
OUTSIDE THE BUILDING. 

THE EXACT SIZE OF THE CHARGE IS DIFFICULT TO DETERMINE. 
EVEN A RELATIVELY SMALL ONE WOULD HAVE CAUSED THE 
BUILDING TO FALL. HOWEVER, EVALUATION OF COLLATERAL 
DAMAGE HAS ALLOWED EXPERTS TO DETERMINE THAT NO LESS THAN 
660 POUNDS OF EXPLOSIVES WERE USED. DAMAGE TO ADJACENT 
BUILDINGS CONFIRMED THIS, JUST AS THE SHRAPNEL DISPERSAL 
PATTERN CONFIRMED THE USE OF A CAR -BOMB. 

THIS WAS THE SECOND SUCH BOMBING ATTACK IN ARGENTINA. AT 
02:40 P.M., ON MARCH 17, 1992, THE ISRAELI EMBASSY IN 
BUENOS AIRES WAS DESTROYED. ALTHOUGH ONE WAS DIRECTED 
AGAINST THE MISSION OF A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT AND THE OTHER 



44 

AGAINST AN ARGENTINE INSTITUTION, BOTH BOMBINGS WERE MOST 
PROBABLY INSPIRED BY POLITICAL MOTIVATIONS ORIGINATED IN 
THE MIDDLE EAST. 

THE EMBASSY BUILDING COLLAPSED, BURYING DIPLOMATIC 
PERSONNEL AND VISITORS INSIDE THE PREMISES AND LEAVING, 
AT FINAL COUNT, 2 8 DEAD AND 2 52 INJURED. 

A CAR-BOMB WITH AN ESTIMATED 1,320 POUNDS OF EXPLOSIVES 
WAS USED. THE PICK-UP TRUCK'S WRECKAGE WAS CRUCIAL IN 
CONTRIBUTING TO THE EARLY STAGES OF THE INVESTIGATION. 

FROM LEBANON, THE HEZBOLLAH TERRORIST ORGANIZATION 
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY FOR THIS BOMBING, OFFERING AS 
PROOF OF ITS INVOLVEMENT AN INTELLIGENCE VIDEO I T H AD 
MADE OF THE EMBASSY PRIOR TO THE ATTACK. 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION WAS IMMEDIATELY ESTABLISHED FOR 
THE INVESTIGATION OF THE EMBASSY BOMBING. THE UNITED 
STATES AND ISRAEL WERE PARTICULARLY ACTIVE IN THIS 
RESPECT. NEVERTHELESS, OUR JOINT INVESTIGATIVE EFFORTS 
HAVE YET TO PRODUCE FINAL RESULTS. ACTUALLY, 



45 

I^^^ERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE SHOWS THAT FINDING THOSE 
RESPONSIBLE FOR TERRORIST ACTIONS IS NOT A QUICK OR EASY 
MATTER . 



FOR EXAMPLE, THE DECEMBER 1988 PAN-AM FLIGHT 103 TRAGEDY 
OVER LOCKERBIE WAS ONLY RESOLVED TOWARD THE END OF 1991. 
A SIMILAR PERIOD WAS REQUIRED IN THE CASE OF THE FRENCH 
U.T.A. DC- 10 BOMBING OF 19 89 WHICH WAS NOT ATTRIBUTED TO 
LIBYANS UNTIL 1991. TERRORIST ATTEMPTS IN FRANCE DURING 
1985-1986 WERE FINALLY FOUND IN 1990 TO BE THE 
RESPONSIBILITY OF SHIITE FUNDAMENTALISTS. IN OTHER CASES, 
IT PROVED IMPOSSIBLE TO IDENTIFY THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR 
TERRORIST ACTS DESPITE INTENSE INVESTIGATIVE EFFORTS. 

DESPITE THE DELAYS, OUR RESOLVE TO INVESTIGATE THESE 
CRIMINAL ACTS AND DISCOVER THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THEM 
WILL NOT DIMINISH. 



46 

THE AFTERMATH 

THE A.M. I. A. BUILDING HAD BEEN A POINT OF REFERENCE FOR 
GENERATIONS OF ARGENTINES WHO VALUED THE ROLE PLAYED BY 
JEWS IN OUR HISTORY AND IN FORMING OUR WAY OF LIFE. 

THE JEWISH COMMUNITY IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF OUR NATION OF 
IMMIGRANTS, WHERE PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS SHARE 
SIMILAR VALUES AND COMMON GOALS. THUS, THE A.M. I. A. 
BOMBING AROUSED DEEP FEELINGS OF SORROW AND ANGER IN 
ARGENTINA. INDIGNATION MOUNTED AS MEDIA REPORTS BROUGHT 
HOME ITS MAGNITUDE. 

MY GOVERNMENT IMMEDIATELY AND STRONGLY CONDEMNED THIS 
CRIMINAL ACT, AND CONSIDERED IT AN AFFRONT TO THE NATION, 
THE JEWISH COMMUNITY AND CIVILIZED SOCIETY AS A WHOLE. 
THREE NATIONAL DAYS OF MOURNING WERE FOLLOWED BY A JOINT 
MEETING OF CONGRESS TO WHICH ALL POLITICAL PARTIES, 
SEVERAL NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS 
WERE INVITED. 



47 

CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES IN ARGENTINA ARE HOLDING 
HEARINGS TO ACHIEVE INSIGHT ON THE MATTER. LAST WEEK, THE 
FOREIGN MINISTER EXPLAINED THE SITUATION FROM THE FOREIGN 
POLICY POINT OF VIEW. THE MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR IS 
EXPECTED TO APPEAR BEFORE THEM IN THE NEXT FEW DAYS. 

AT A MORE POPULAR LEVEL, I CAN THINK OF NO BETTER 
EXPRESSION OF PUBLIC SENTIMENT TOWARDS THE BOMBING THAN 
THE ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY THOUSAND PEOPLE WHO GATHERED ON 
THE STREETS OF BUENOS AIRES IN A MASS DEMONSTRATION TO 
CONDEMN THE ATTACK. 



ARGENTINB REACTION 

MY GOVERNMENT HAS REACTED VIGOROUSLY IN PURSUIT OF THOSE 
RESPONSIBLE AND IN RELIEF OF THE VICTIMS AND THEIR 

FAMILIES. 

BORDERS WERE ORDERED CLOSED BY THE PRESIDENT ON THE DAY 
OF THE BOMBING. REINFORCED IMMIGRATION CONTROLS ALLOWED 
CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS TO BE DETAINED. 



48 

SINCE THE ATTACK, ROUTINE POLICE PROTECTION TO JEWISH 
SCHOOLS, SYNAGOGUES AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS HAS BEEN 
SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED. 

FEDERAL JUDGE JUAN JOSE GALEANO IS IN CHARGE OF THE 
CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION, AND HAS BEEN WORKING WITH THE 
ADMINISTRATION AND SECURITY FORCES TO CAPTURE THOSE 
RESPONSIBLE. IN THE CONTEXT OF HIS INVESTIGATION, JUDGE 
GALEANO TRAVELED TO VENEZUELA TO RECEIVE STATEMENTS FROM 
AN IRANIAN CITIZEN WHO WAS SAID TO POSSES INFORMATION. 

IN THE DIPLOMATIC FIELD, AND IN ORDER TO RECEIVE FIRST- 
HAND REPORTS, OUR AMBASSADORS IN BEIRUT AND TEHERAN HAVE 
BEEN CALLED TO BUENOS AIRES. WE HAVE ALSO REQUESTED 
INFORMATION FROM THE LEBANESE AND IRANIAN GOVERNMENTS 
REGARDING HEZBOLLAH SPONSORED ORGANIZATIONS THAT CAN BE 
FOUND IN THOSE COUNTRIES. MORE SPECIFICALLY, THE IRANIAN 
AMBASSADOR IN ARGENTINA HAS BEEN CALLED SEVERAL TIMES IN 
THE LAST FEW DAYS TO MEET WITH FOREIGN MINISTRY 
OFFICIALS. 



49 

A SPECIAL COMMITTEE HAS ALSO BEEN ESTABLISHED, LINKING 
THE POLICE WITH JEWISH INSTITUTIONS IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN 
PERMANENT CONTACT WITH THEM AND WITH THE NEIGHBORHOOD 
DAMAGED BY THE BOMB. 

GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS HAVE MADE THEMSELVES AVAILABLE TO 
ISRAELI ENVOYS AND ARGENTINE AND FOREIGN JEWISH 
ORGANIZATIONS, WHOSE REPRESENTATIVES WENT TO BUENOS AIRES 
TO OFFER SUPPORT AND GATHER INFORMATION. MEETINGS WITH 
THE PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS OF HIS CABINET TOOK PLACE IN 
THIS CONTEXT. 

DURING THEIR MEETINGS, PRESIDENT MENEM RECALLED HIS 
STATEMENTS ON THE ATTACK, THE OPENNESS AND SOLIDARITY OF 
THE ARGENTINE PEOPLE AND HIS OWN DETERMINATION TO 
IDENTIFY AND PUNISH THOSE RESPONSIBLE. HE ALSO ANNOUNCED 
THAT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE WILL BE EXTENDED TO THE 
FAMILIES OF THE VICTIMS AND THAT A REQUEST FOR AID IN 
REBUILDING THE A. M. I . A. /D . A . I . A. HEADQUARTERS WOULD 
RECEIVE FAVORABLE CONSIDERATION. 



50 

HERE, IN THE UNITED STATES, MY EMBASSY AND ALL OUR 
CONSULATES HAVE BEEN IN CONSTANT CONTACT WITH THE MANY 
INDIVIDUALS AND AMERICAN JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS THAT CAME 
FORWARD AT THIS MOMENT. 



ANTI-SEMITISM 

NOTWITHSTANDING THE GENERALIZED CONVICTION THAT THE 
MOTIVES AND INSPIRATION FOR THE BOMBING ARE RELATED TO 
THE MIDDLE EAST, REPUTED EXISTENCE OF ANTI-SEMITISM IN 
ARGENTINA HAS BEEN MENTIONED IN ITS REGARD. IF ANYTHING, 
THE BOMBING HAS INSPIRED ARGENTINA TO CLOSE RANKS ONCE 
AGAIN WITH ITS JEWISH COMMUNITY. 

IN FACT, A SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE AMERICAN JEWISH 
COMMITTEE AND THE DELEGATION OF ARGENTINE ISRAELI 
ASSOCIATIONS^ SHOWS A CONSIDERABLE TENDENCY TOWARDS 
ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS, AND CULTURAL PLURALISM IN ARGENTINE 
SOCIETY. IT ALSO INDICATES THAT, ON THE WHOLE, THERE IS A 
POSITIVE ORIENTATION TOWARD JEWS AND SIGNIFICANT 



■ ATTITI;D[iS TOWARDS JEWS IN ARGENTINA A PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY 
CONDUCTF.D OR HIE AMERICAN JEWISH COMVflTTEE .^lND DELEGACION DE 
AS(X IA( lONI-.S ISRAtLITAS ARGENTINAS NOVEMBER 12-DECEMBER 3. 1992. 



51 

TOLERANCE IN ACCEPTING THE VARIOUS ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS 
GROUPS THAT MAKE UP THE COUNTRY. IT DEMONSTRATES FURTHER 
THAT MARKEDLY DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDES TOWARD JEWS AND 
OTHERS ARE NOT FOUND IN THE AREAS OF SOCIAL AND FAMILIAL 
INTERACTION. IT ALSO SHOWS THAT 69% OF ARGENTINES POLLED 
PREFERRED TO LIVE IN A MULTIRACIAL, CULTURALLY DIVERSE 
AND RELIGIOUSLY FREE SOCIETY. 



RULE OF LAW 

TO THOSE WHO SUGGESTED THAT AN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE TO 
TERRORISM CAN BE FOUND IN SETTING ASIDE THE LAW, I MUST 
ANSWER EMPHATICALLY THAT OUR RECENT HISTORY HAS SHOWN US, 
IN AN UNFORTUNATE WAY, THAT VIOLENCE ONLY GENERATES MORE 
VIOLENCE. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DEMOCRACY IN ARGENTINA OVER A DECADE 
AGO ALSO BROUGHT ABOUT THE REPLACEMENT OF A REPRESSIVE 
SECURITY APPARATUS BY AN INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY IMBUED 
WITH THE CONCEPT OF THE RULE OF LAW. 



52 

COUNTRIES SUCH AS MINE, WHICH ENJOY DEMOCRATIC 
INSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNMENTS CONCERNED WITH THE WELL- 
BEING OF THEIR PEOPLE, WILL CONTINUE TO RESPECT LEGAL 
PROCEDURES IN THEIR PERSECUTION OF VIOLENT TERRORIST 
ACTS. 

MY GOVERNMENT IS COMMITTED TO SECURING ITS PEOPLE'S 
DESIRE TO PRESERVE FREEDOM, TOLERANCE AND DEMOCRACY. AT 
THE SAME TIME IT WILL NOT REST UNTIL THOSE RESPONSIBLE 
FOR THE BOMBINGS ARE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE. 



INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIONS 

THE DAY FOLLOWING THE ATTACK IN ARGENTINA, A PLANE 
CARRYING NUMEROUS JEWISH PASSENGERS BLEW UP IN FLIGHT 
OVER PANAMA. A FEW DAYS LATER, BOMBS DESTROYED THE 
ISRAELI EMBASSY IN LONDON AND WERE SET OFF IN FRONT OF A 
BUILDING HOUSING BRITISH JEWISH INSTITUTIONS. 

DURING HIS RECENT VISIT TO WASHINGTON, THE PRIME MINISTER 
OF ISRAEL, YITZHAK RABIN, SAID IN A WHITE HOUSE NEWS 
CONFERENCE THAT IT WAS REASONABLE TO ASSUME THAT 



53 

TERRORIST BOMBINGS OF JEWISH TARGETS IN BUENOS AIRES AND 
LONDON WERE THE WORK OF MUSLIM EXTREMISTS. IN ANOTHER 
INTERVIEW, HE ADDED THAT ISLAMIC TERRORIST MOVEMENTS ARE 
DETERMINED TO IMDERMINE THE ARAB- ISRAELI PEACE PROCESS. 
HE ADDED THAT THE WORLD WAS FACING A WAVE OF EXTREME 
ISLAMIC RADICAL TERRORIST MOVEMENTS WITH INFRASTRUCTURE 
ALL OVER THE WORLD. 

KING HUSSEIN OF JORDAN ALSO DENOUNCED THE PEOPLE BEHIND 
THESE ATTACKS, CALLING THEM ENEMIES OF HOPE, ENEMIES OF 
WHAT SHOULD BE NORMAL AMONG PEOPLE. 

A MEMBER OF THE ISRAELI PARLIAMENT CONSIDERED THAT THE 
ATTACK AGAINST A. M.I. A. /D.A.I. A. WAS APPARENTLY A 
RETALIATION FOR ISRAEL'S BOMBING OF A HEZBOLLAH TRAINING 
BASE, LAST JUNE 2, AND ITS KIDNAPPING OF A SHIITE-MUSLIM 
LEADER IN LEBANON, ON MAY 21. 

BOTH MR. RABIN AND MR. ARAFAT HAVE SEPARATELY MENTIONED 
THAT THE LEBANESE HEZBOLLAH IS BEHIND THE A.M. I. A. / 

D.A.I. A. BOMBING. 



54 

MY COUNTRY'S RENEWED PARTICIPATION IN MULTILATERAL 
EFFORTS TO RESPOND TO SITUATIONS THAT THREATEN 
INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY HAS BEEN PERCEIVED AS 
EXPOSING IT TO A HIGHER LEVEL OF TERRORIST AGGRESSION. 
HOWEVER OUR FOREIGN POLICY WILL NOT BE ALTERED. 
ARGENTINA, WILL CONTINUE TO BE POSITIVELY INVOLVED IN 
WORLD AFFAIRS AND UNITED NATIONS PEACE -KEEPING 
OPERATIONS. 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 

MY GOVERNMENT CONSIDERS THAT THE WORLD IS NOW 
ENCOUNTERING A NEW DIMENSION OF TERRORISM WITH INCREASED 
LEVELS OF SOPHISTICATION, AND THAT OUR ABILITY TO 
ANTICIPATE ITS ATTACKS MUST BE ENHANCED. 

IN ORDER TO BETTER DEAL WITH THE INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION 
OF TERRORISM, ARGENTINE INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES HAVE 
INCREASED COOPERATION WITH THOSE OF OTHER FRIENDLY 
NATIONS. 



55 

LET ME TAKE A MOMENT TO RECALL THAT IN 1983 THE U.S. 
CONGRESS AUTHORIZED THE ANT I -TERRORISM ASSISTANCE 
PROGRAM, A MAJOR INITIATIVE TO FIGHT INTERNATIONAL 
TERRORISM. AMERICAN ASSISTANCE HAS SINCE BEEN EXTENDED 
TO ARGENTINA FOR THE TRAINING OF GOVERNMENT LAW 
ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS. 

IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE BOMBING, WE RECEIVED FURTHER OFFERS 
OF COOPERATION FROM THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, WHICH I 
WAS INSTRUCTED TO ACCEPT. TECHNICAL DETAILS OF THIS OFFER 
HAVE BEEN WORKED OUT DIRECTLY BETWEEN THE ARGENTINE AND 
AMERICAN AGENCIES INVOLVED. 

ADDITIONALLY, TWENTY- FOUR HOURS AFTER THE EXPLOSION, A 
SPECIALIZED ISRAELI RESCUE TEAM ARRIVED IN BUENOS AIRES 
TO HELP IN THE SEARCH FOR SURVIVORS . FURTHER COOPERATION 
BETWEEN THE INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES OF ARGENTINA, ISRAEL, 
THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER NATIONS WAS ALSO QUICKLY 
ESTABLISHED. 



56 

THUS, RESULTS FROM THE INVESTIGATION WILL ALSO COME FROM 
AN INTERNATIONAL EFFORT THAT IS CONTRIBUTING TO BUILD 
THE ARGENTINE PROSECUTORS' CASE. 



DIPLOMATIC ACTION 



AFTER THE BOMBING, MANY NATIONS CAME FORWARD WITH 
STATEMENTS REJECTING THE CRUEL ATTACK AGAINST THE 

A.M. I. A. /D.A.I. A. BUILDING. 

PRESIDENT CLINTON WAS AMONG THE FIRST TO REACT. HE CALLED 
IT COWARDLY AND SAID THAT THIS TERRIBLE LOSS OF 
INNOCENT LIVES MUST NOT DETER CIVILIZED SOCIETY FROM 
OPPOSING THE ENEMIES OF PEACE. 

RESPONDING TO AN ARGENTINE REQUEST FOR AN EXTRAORDINARY 
MEETING, THE PERM7VNENT COUNCIL OF THE ORGANIZATION OF 
AMERICAN STATES ISSUED A DECLARATION ON JULY 19 STATING 
ITS STRONGEST CONDEMNATION {OF THIS) ATTACK ON THE JEWISH 
COMMUNITY IN ARGENTINA (WHICH) IS ALSO AN AFFRONT TO THE 
ENTIRE NATION AND THE CONSCIENCES OF THE PEOPLE OF THE 
AMERICAS. 



57 

ARGENTINA ALSO REQUESTED AND OBTAINED A MEETING OF THE 
U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL IN ORDER TO REPORT ON THE 
SITUATION. LAST FRIDAY, JULY 29, OUR FOREIGN MINISTER 
WENT TO THE U.N. TO DESCRIBE THE ATTACK AND MAKE SPECIFIC 
PROPOSALS REGARDING THE SCOPE OF DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY AND 
THE NEED FOR U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL CONSIDERATION OF 
CONCRETE MEASURES TO COUNTER INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM. 

HE ALSO STATED THAT ALTHOUGH WE PRESUME THAT IT RECEIVED 
SUPPORT FROM MARGINAL GROUPS WITHIN ARGENTINA, THE ORIGIN 
OF AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE BOMBING IS TO BE FOUND 
BEYOND ARGENTINA'S BORDERS. 

WITH REGARDS TO THE ISRAELI EMBASSY BOMBING OF 1992, THE 
FOREIGN MINISTER RECALLED THAT ON MAY 28, THE SPIRITUAL 
LEADER OF HEZBOLLAH DECLARED THAT MUSLIM FIGHTERS HAVE 
REACHED ARGENTINA AND THAT, THEREFORE, WE CANNOT EXCLUDE 
THAT THIS ORGANIZATION IS ALSO BEHIND THE 
A.M. I.A. /D.A.I. A. BOMBING. FINALLY HE ADDED THAT, 
ALTHOUGH WE ALL KNOW WHO THEY ARE, WE CANNOT YET 
OFFICIALLY AFFIRM THAT OTHER COUNTRIES ARE BEHIND THE 
BOMBING. 



58 

THE PRESENTATION OF THE ARGENTINE FOREIGN MINISTER TO THE 
U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL WAS BASED ON THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY'S 
RESOLUTION 44/122 OF DECEMBER 12, 1994, WHICH CONDEMNS 
TERRORISM AND ITS METHODS, AND URGES THE INTERNATIONAL 
COMMUNITY TO COOPERATE IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST THE THREAT 
OF NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM. 

ON THE AFTERNOON OF THE SAME DAY, AND ALSO AT ARGENTINA'S 
REQUEST, A SECOND EXTRAORDINARY MEETING OF THE O.A.S.' 
PERMANENT COUNCIL HEARD A FURTHER STATEMENT BY THE 
ARGENTINE FOREIGN MINISTER. IN IT, HE URGED THE O.A.S. 
AND ITS MEMBERS TO UNDERTAKE CONCERTED ACTIONS AGAINST 
TERRORISM. 

AFTER DEBATING, THE PERMANENT COUNCIL OF THE O.A.S. 
ISSUED A DECLARATION EXPRESSING ITS APPRECIATION FOR 
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE FOREIGN MINISTER 
ON THE BOMBING AND ON INVESTIGATIVE EFFORTS TO CLARIFY 
THIS ATROCITY. AT THE SAME TIME, THE PERMANENT COUNCIL 
REITERATED ITS DECLARATION OF JULY 19. 



59 

MR. CHAIRM?SlN: 

TODAY WE ARE WAGING A WAR AGAINST IRRATIONAL VIOLENCE. 
THIS STRUGGLE IS NOT BETWEEN ARGENTINA AND SOME TERRORIST 
GROUP, BUT BETWEEN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND 
WORLDWIDE TERRORISM; BETWEEN THOSE WHO LOVE PEACE AND 
THOSE WHO PURSUE SPURIOUS OBJECTIVES WITHOUT REGARD TO 
THE COST IN HUMAN LIVES. WE MUST COME TOGETHER TO FIGHT 
THIS COMMON ENEMY. 

THEREFORE, I WISH TO TAKE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO CALL UPON 
YOUR SUBCOMMITTEES TO CONTINUE THEIR WORK IN THIS REGARD. 
I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO SUGGEST THAT THE U.S. CONGRESS 
EXTEND ITS SUPPORT TO INITIATIVES DIRECTED TOWARDS THE 
ENHANCEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE STRUGGLE 
AGAINST TERRORISM. 



60 



statement of Steven Emerson 

August 1, 1994 

U.S. House of Representatives 

Committee on Foreign Affairs 



I think it is especially appropriate that you are holding this 
hearing today regarding the bombings in Argentina and Great 
Britain. The American public needs to understand that although 
the bombings took place thousands of miles away and victims were 
foreigners, the next time we could be the target. Although the 
media has devoted far less attention to this carnage than it did 
to similar acts of religious fanatical violence earlier this 
year in the Middle East, the attacks in Argentina and London 
were no less horrific. 

I believe American public policymakers must begin to understand 
the depth of a new problem now facing the world. The bombings 
were not simply an "attempt by the enemies of peace to derail the 
peace process" as several senior U.S. officials described the 
attack in Argentina. Nor were they simply the "return of Middle 
Eastern terrorism" as a senior British law enforcement official 
described the London bombings. 

Rather, the bombings are part of an escalating world wide 
battle between radical Islamic militants and the West. The perpe- 
trators of these bombings are not motivated by what is known as 
"legitimate grievances." 

Radical Islamic militants see the very existence of pro-Western 
nations, such as Israel and Egypt, or pluralistic systems such as 



61 



democracy, or rival religions such as Judaism and Christianity 
and even moderate Muslims as a mortal threat to their very being. 
These militants see the continuation of a thousand-year conspira- 
cy waged by the infidel to subjugate Islam. In this perspective, 
the West's publication of Salman Rushdie's book and the 1991 
Persian Gulf War are simply extensions of the Crusader's assault 
on Islam. 

The terrorism in the 1970 ' s--largely attributable to Pales- 
tinian organizations--ultimately dissipated because the secular 
PLO compromised its maximalist goals to destroy Israel. Today, 
Yasser Arafat is either unwilling or unable to stop other Pales- 
tinian terrorists, but at least he has put an end to most Fatah 
terrorism. Clearly, a Middle East peace agreement can stop some 
types of terror. 

But radical Islamic militants are not susceptible to the same 
rational persuasion. They see any accord that accepts the legit- 
imacy of a Jewish state or the existence of pro-American regimes 
in Egypt or Jordan as intrinsically offensive. To these groups, 
there can be no compromise; it is a duel to the death with infi- 
dels and heretics. The war is without borders. Unlike the peace- 
ful version of Jihad, these militants see and practice Jihad only 
as a holy war. Becoming a martyr in the cause of Jihad is just 
as good as killing in the cause of Jihad. In this new clash 
between militant Islam and its enemies, political reconciliation 
is inherently impossible. 

In Europe, Hizbullah- Iran assassination squads have murdered 
scores of dissidents. In Thailand, the Israeli Embassy narrowly 



62 



missed being blown up this year by a car bomb made up of the same 
type of explosives that blew up the World Trade Center. In Ban- 
gladesh, a female writer has been driven into hiding, the subject 
of a religious death sentence for her writings perceived to be 
critical of the Qur'an. In Canada, several radical Islamic ter- 
ror ists--including a member of Hizbullah and a member of the 
black Muslim Al-Fuqra group--have been recently convicted for 
carrying out acts of terror. In Chicago earlier this year, sever- 
al Jewish schools and institutions were torched by Palestinian 
youths, who were part of a larger Hamas community. 

Despite attempts by some to paper over the differences be- 
tween radical Islam and the West, the fact remains that radical 
Islamic leaders see the West as engaged in a conspiracy to wipe 
out Islam. In this context, Israel is the Little Satan and the 
United States is the Great Satan. Attacks on targets like the 
World Trade Center last year or in Buenos Aires two weeks ago are 
just if ied--indeed mandated--as part of the holy war against the 
infidels. For those perpetrating such attacks, they may indeed be 
motivated by distinct events--such as retaliation for specific 
acts--but the large local support network needed to carry out 
such terrorism could only arise because of the widespread accept- 
ance of radical anti-western precepts. 

At the outset, it is important to point out that the over- 
whelming majority of the nearly one billion Muslims in the world 
today do not support such concepts of jihad or violence. Those 



63 

that support violence are only a very small minority and totally 
unrepresentative of the larger community. And as King Hussein of 
Jordan said the other day at a press conference at the White 
House, the bombings in Argentina had nothing to do with Islam. In 
the theological sense, he is right. Terrorism has nothing to do 
with mainstream Islam. Islam is an incredibly rich and peaceful 
religion that has given the world a wonderful legacy. But in the 
last half of the 20th Century, militancy and violence has every- 
thing to do with radical Islamic fundamentalism. 

It would be the height of recklessness and naivete to deny 
that which has become a reality: In recent years, radical Islamic 
movements, for a variety of reasons, have proliferated not just 
throughout the Middle East but globally. These radical extremists 
have been able to set up a vast international network of support- 
ers throughout the world, especially in the West, where they have 
amassed money and weapons, established recruitment centers, and 
even established command and control facilities. In the United 
States, the Gama ' a Islamiya, Hizbullah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, to 
name just a few, have established elaborate support systems. The 
same goes, in varying degrees, for Canada, Germany, France, Great 
Britain, Argentina and elsewhere. 

Radical Islamic groups are not a monolith nor are they not 
controlled by an Islamic Politburo. Many of the groups act inde- 
pendently of one another, yet often collaborate in various opera- 
tions as a means of carrying out attacks on their common enemies. 
If there is one unifying factor among the myriad groups, it is 
the common enemy they confront. Because of the decentralized 



64 



structure of these groups and their ad hoc collaboration--above 
and beyond the constitutional limits of democracies to take pre- 
ventive action--the West faces serious challenges in the years 
ahead . 

Although there is no one nation or organization that directs 
radical Islamic groups, Iran plays a pivotal role. In giving 
birth to the first modern Islamic republic, Iran has provided 
ideological and religious sustenance to ideological comrades 
around the world in its war with the Great Satan. As a microcosm 
of the larger splintered radical Islamic community, Iran is not 
controlled by any one person, and thus there are independent 
centers of authority running terrorist operations. 

Yet, despite attempts by some American analysts to portray a 
jockeying for power between "moderate" and "radicals," the truth 
is--as we should have learned in the Iran-contra episode--there 
is no thing as a moderate in the Iranian government. There are, 
however, "pragmatists " whom we confuse as moderates. And these 
pragmatists , like President 

Rafsanjani, readily use terror as an instrument of foreign policy 
whenever it is deemed convenient. Money, weapons, training, 
directions, sanctuary, passports, diplomatic and commercial 
cover--this is what Iran has provided to its network around the 
world- -direct ly through its embassies, export-import companies, 
consular offices, and airlines and indirectly through select 
mosques, charitable foundations, and various Islamic centers. 



65 



According to Israeli and American intelligence, there is very- 
little doubt that Iran was the major party behind the Argentinean 
bombing. The modus operandi of the attack was virtually the same 
one as that which blew up the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires two 
years ago. That attack, based on electronic intelligence and 
other intelligence information, showed that the Iranian officials 
had coordinated the bombing against the Israeli embassy via 
smuggling explosives in its diplomatic pouch. The attack was 
carried out by a suicide bomber from a local branch of Hizbullah, 
which has established a wide network in Argentina, particularly 
in the "tri-border" area. 

Beyond the virtual similarity in the two explosions, investi- 
gators on the ground say they have acquired additional evidence 
linking Iran and Hizbullah to the blast. Similarly, the bombing 
of the Israeli embassy in London could only have been carried out 
through a well-planned and coordinated attack; the car containing 
the explosives was parked adjacent to the side of the Israeli 
embassy where the Israeli ambassador's office is. Fortunately, 
he was not in it at the time; the bomb obliterated his office. 
Although Iran was almost certainly behind the bombing in London, 
intelligence officials say that there is a strong possibility 
that other terrorist groups collaborated in the attacks. 

In the past week, Hizbullah and Iran have gone to extraordinary 
public lengths to deny any involvement in the bombing. But those 
very denials are hallmarks of Iranian and Hizbullah tactics. 
Indeed, Iran and Hizbullah had long publicly denied any connec- 
tion to the Americas held hostage in Lebanon. Iran, Hizbullah and 



66 



their accomplice Syria--despite electronic evidence to the con- 
trary--consistently denied any involvement in the destruction of 
the Marine compound in Beirut which killed 241 Marines, or the 
two bombings of the American diplomatic facilities in Beirut in 
1983 and 1984. Iran also denied any involvement in the multiple 
attacks and assassinations by Iranian hit squads in the past 14 
years . 

In Lebanon, the 5000-man fighting force of the Hizzbollah 
(under the direct supervision of at least 500 Iranian Revolution- 
ary Guards camped out in the Bekka Valley) has become an exten- 
sion of Iran, enabling Iran to claim it has become a frontline 
battle state with Israel. 

Hizbullah is organized in tightly compartraented cells, often 
by village, tribal or family lines. Not only does this make 
foreign infiltration virtually impossible; it insures that culpa- 
bility is lim.ited. Names of groups are routinely invented for 
new operations, then discarded to throw off the scent to intelli- 
gence agencies. During the 1980's, more than 25 different Leba- 
nese groups were said to have been involved in the kidnapping and 
killing of American hostages. In truth, all the groups were 
simply re-named cells operating under one single umbrella organi- 
zation--Hizbullah. 

When the massive car bomb obliterated the building at Pasteur 
Street 633 in Buenos Aires, the perpetrators knew it was not 
housing their ostensible enemy, the Israelis, whom they have 
confronted in southern Lebanon and Israel proper for the past 
nine years. After all, if Hizbullah wanted to launch a massive 



67 



suicide car bomb against Israeli forces, it could easily have 
done so. Despite Israeli and South Lebanese Army patrols of the 
South Lebanon security zone, Hizbullah has shown that it can 
carry out attacks with virtual impunity. 

The decision to kill as many innocent Jewish civilians and 
residents of Argentina as possible was taken in the same manner 
as was the decision to bomb the World Trade Center. "We can hit 
you on your turf" in the very belly of the beast was the message. 
And like the bombing of the World Trade Center, Buenos Aires was 
also chosen by radical Islamic militants because of similar 
factors that made it easy to carry out: Radical Islamists have an 
extensive support infrastructure in Argentina and in neighboring 
countries. Hizbullah and other radicals have easy access in and 
out of Argentina. The Argentinean government has not effectively 
cracked down on Iranian diplomats who have set up surveillance 
operations and abused their diplomatic privileges. And Argentina 
has not yet clamped down on the embryonic radical neo-Nazi 
alignment with the radical Islamic militants. 

By selecting Buenos Aries twice in two years, this also insured 
that everyone would know Iran and Hizbullah were behind the 
bombing while still enabling Iran and Hizbullah to fiercely deny 
any connection. Like the United States, Argentina was deemed a 
special target of recruitment because of the presence of so many 
Muslim immigrants. In the 1980 's, Iran intensified its worldwide 
outreach program, and began providing money and sending Iranian 
clerics to foreign Islamic communities. The significance Buenos 



84-344 - 94 - 4 



68 



Aires was accorded by Iran was indicated by the fact, as pointed 
out by Islamic scholar Khalid Duran, that Iran sent Ayatollah 
Rabbanni--one of only 40 Ayatollahs--to serve as the leader of a 
Shiite mosque in Buenos Aires in the raid-1980's. There have been 
at least a dozen special trips by Iranian and Afghan Jihad lead- 
ers to Buenos Aires to raise money and recruit volunteers for 
the jihad in Afghanistan and elsewhere. There were even organiza- 
tional links established to Jihad organizations in the United 
States. 

For the past decade, Iran has directed assassinations and car 
bombings throughout Europe and Southeast Asia. Although in some 
cases authorities have prosecuted those found to be involved, in 
just as many cases, authorities have let go known terrorists 
believed to have been involved rather than incur the wrath of 
radical Islamic militants or their Iranian backers. 

According to figures compiled by European intelligence serv- 
ices, Iran has been responsible for killing or wounding more than 
100 Iranian dissidents, foreign nationals, journalists and other 
designated "enemies." 

To list just a handful of attacks: 

♦July 1991, Tokyo: The Japanese translator of Salman Rushdie's 
book, the Satanic Verses, was stabbed to death in Japan. His 
Italian counterpart was stabbed ten days earlier but survived the 
attack . 

♦August 1991, Paris: Former Iranian leader Shapur Bakhtiar, de- 
spite being under heavy French guard 24 hours a day in a safe- 



69 



house outside Paris, had his throat slit. His perpetrators were 
Iranians, although French intelligence soon determined that 
indigenous Islamic militants provided surveillance and helped 
carry out the operation. 

♦September 1992, Berlin, Germany: In the backroom of a restaurant 
called Mykonos, two gunmen suddenly burst in and sprayed the 
eight men having dinner. The guests were senior officials of the 
Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan. Four of them died on the 
spot. Shortly thereafter, German authorities arrested two Leba- 
nese Hizbullah operatives who had been directly recruited to 
carry out this carnage. German authorities subsequently learned 
that an Iranian cleric named Kazem Darabi, who had been living in 
Germany for several years, had provided the weapons, money and 
safehouses for the killer. He had arranged the terrorist killings 
in meetings held at a Berlin mosque. Later, it was found that 
Darabi had arranged the killings directly under the orders of 
Iranian diplomats. 

♦1992 and 1993, Turkey: Iranian-trained hit squads killed several 
popular Turkish journalists, Iranian dissidents, and an Israeli 
security officer; and attempted to kill a leader of the Turkish 
Jewish community. Turkish police found that the perpetrators were 
trained in Teheran. 

♦Spring 1994, Bangkok, Thailand: A booby trapped car filled with 
the same type of nitrate-based explosive used in the bombing of 
the World Trade Center was found a short distance from the Israe- 



70 



li and American Embassies in Bangkok. The car was found hours 
before the bomb was set to go off. Weeks later, several Iranians 
were arrested by Thai police which had found links to the at- 
tempted bombing. But they were soon released. 

Although Iranian officials have told western interviewers that 
they have had nothing to do with these strings of murders, we 
should listen to what they say among themselves. In an extraordi- 
nary interview on Iranian television in August 1992, Ali Fallahi- 
an, head of the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence, openly took 
credit for the killing of opponents abroad. "Our services follow 
members of these groups abroad. ..[ and have been responsible for] 
blows delivered to the opposition groups outside the country." 
Fallahian even admitted that Iran operates an extensive espionage 
operation in other countries, "In some countries, we have spies 
in the highest level of leadership." 

Iran often collaborates and networks with other radical Islamic 
groups as well. The Islamic Palestinian group Hamas has a full- 
time representative in Teheran, has received millions of dollars 
from the Mullah regime, and has used Iran as a meeting ground for 
top level conferences. Iran has an even closer alliance with 
Palestine Islamic Jihad, a rival Palestinian fundamentalist 
organization. Fat ' hi Shiqaqi, head of one of six Islamic Jihad 
factions, has openly admitted accepting funds and receiving 
training from Iran in his war against the "Western-Zionist-Cru- 
saders." In 1993, Sheik Shiqaqi openly advocated that Iran resume 



71 



its abduction of American hostages. In fact, it is Shiqaqi who 
has openly talked about the impending clash of civilizations 
between the Satanic West and Islam. In his view, every Muslim has 
an obligation to carry out Sheik Ayatollah Khoumeni ' s fatwa that 
the "Zionist entity" be destroyed, and that Israel's existence is 
only the extension of the United States conspiracy against Islam. 

Israel has already declared it will avenge the attacks in Buenos 
Aires and London. Already in Israel, a new debate has emerged 
about whether to revive the type of covert intelligence hit 
squads that sought to avenge the planners of the notorious Munich 
massacre in 1972. But Israel cannot be the only country on whose 
shoulders the responsibility of deterring this types of attacks. 
Moreover, it is all but guaranteed that no matter what Israel 
does, it will not be able to shut down the world wide network of 
radical Islamic terror alone. 

Such a resolution, if at all possible, can only come about 
through the offices of the United States. Last week. Secretary of 
State Warren Christopher told this body that Hizbullah and Iran 
"must be contained." He articulated a criticism of those coun- 
tries that continue to engage in commercial trade relations with 
Iran . 

But isolating Iran is still not enough. Hizbullah today oper- 
ates under the full protection of Syria. In fact, all of Hizbul- 
lah ' s main training bases are located in the Bekka Valley, under 
the total sovereignty of Syria. Much of Hizbullah' s weapons are 



72 



sent through Damascus by air and then by truck convoy through 
Syrian military lines. Syria uses Hizbullah to attack Israeli 
targets in the south as an appendage of its foreign policy: Syria 
believes such attacks place pressure on Israel while giving Syria 
plausible deniability that it is involved in terror. The charade 
works because the West goes along with it. 

Today, Lebanon is the largest geographic terrorist base in the 
world, thanks to Syria. Although there is no evidence that Syria 
approves of or is aware of the attacks in Argentina or Great 
Britain, Syrian complicity cannot be removed in the same way that 
Israeli complicity could not be removed from the massacre of 
Palestinians by Phalangist squads in Sabra and Chatilla in 1982. 
As the guarantor of Lebanon, Syria cannot avoid responsibility 
for the operations of a terror group it sustains and protects. 

Ironically, it is the United States itself where many of the 
groups have established political and financial headquarters. 
According to law enforcement and intelligence officials, most 
Middle East terror organizations and radical Islamic militant 
groups have established an extensive presence--and in some cases 
their political headquarters--right here in the United States. 
For the most part, many of these groups have not carried out 
terror attacks on American soil for fear of spoiling what has 
become a political safehaven. They use the United States to 
raise millions of dollars, organize politically, and even command 
military operations in their native lands by remote control. 

On the other hand, the intensity of the fierce anti-Western 



73 



and anti-American ideology of these radical Islamic groups in- 
creasingly conflicts with their short-terra pragmatic considera- 
tions. Hence the bombing of the World Trade Center. Despite the 
freedom afforded those who were living here, in the end it was 
that very freedom that was despised. It is this paradox that we 
in the West will have to confront. 

Some Western security officials with whom I have recently 
spoken believe the bombing of the Jewish and Israeli targets in 
London and Buenos Aires can be "contained" to Jewish and Israeli 
targets. Not only is such a distinction invidious, it is only a 
matter of time before the ideology driving these attacks esca- 
lates into attacks on "non-Middle East" targets. 

As I said earlier: The notion that "peace" in the Middle East 
will assuage radical Islamic groups or that some form of Western 
reconciliation is possible with radical Islamic groups is woeful- 
ly mistaken. Hizbullah's and Iran's argument with Israel is not 
over specific Israeli acts. Contrary to the point raised by a 
distinguished columnist in the New York Times last week, the 
terrorist causes of the bombings in Argentina and England cannot 
be rationally solved anymore than the death threat against 
Salman Rushdie can be resolved by appeasing the radical fundamen- 
talists making the threat. 

These bombings should finally force the West to wake up to the 
new battlefront it is facing--an era of unalterably violent anti- 
western, anti-Jewish, anti-Christian rage and anti moderate 



74 



Muslim rage. Coupled with the bombing of the World Trade Center 
last year, these bombings show that radical Islamic militants 
have now taken their battle from their homelands into the heart 
of enemy territory--the West. 

It will require concerted action by all countries to coordinate 
their intelligence, asylum, security procedures, and immigration 
policies to protect civilians from increasingly becoming the new 
frontline in the unfolding wave of terrorism. 



75 



PRESENTATION BY DR. RUBEN BERAJA, PRESffiENT OF THE D.A.I.A., 

DELEGATION OF ARGENTINE JEWISH ASSOCIATIONS 

SUB-COMMITTEE OF HUMAN RIGHTS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

WASHINGTON, D.C., AUGUST 1, 1994 



Mr. Chairman: 



I 

I thank you for the concern of the Sub-committee under your leadership, to consider 
in this hearmg the criminal terrorist attack that took place in my country on July 18, 1994. 

Taking into consideration the very good relationship existing between Argentina and 
the United States, the international repercussions of the terrorist threat, the traditional 
solidarity of your country with the Jewish people, and the influence that the United States has 
m the world. I have decided to accept your invitation so that through this significant body, 
the Congress of the United States may commit its strong action to face such a threat. 

I come as an Argentinean committed to democracy and human rights, with the ideals 
of peace and harmony, without prejudice or discrimination. As such and as a Jew, I preside 
D.A.I. A., the representative organization of the Argentinean Jewish institutions, and an 
affiliate of the World Jewish Congress. 

But I am convinced that I do not speak only for myself, nor only for the organization 
I represent, but on behalf of millions of fellow Argentineans of various beliefs and 
ideologies, who share the condemnation of terror, who are committed with life, freedom and 
the rule of law. 

Please see me also as another survivor of the attack, and this should be taken literally, 
because our DA. I. A. offices were located in the same A. M.I. A. building that was totally 
destroyed. 

II 

Before addressing in depth our issue I wish to pay heartfelt tribute to the memory of 
the manyrs of July 18. to offer a prayer for the recovery of the wounded and comfort to the 
bereaved families. 

At the same time I wish to point out before the world that millions of Argentineans, 



76 



charitable institutions, dignitaries of the various religious beliefs, political parties, labor 
unions, professional associations, the Armed Forces, artists, intellectuals, students and all 
governmental powers shared the anguish and pain in a public rally that constimted an 
example of brotherhood and solidarity, that honor the Argentinean people. 

Similarly, I wish to point out the devoted effort of the security forces, of the rescuers 
and medical personnel, as well as of the thousands of anonymous volunteers that worked 
without dismay in the midst of so much destruction. 

Ill 

The sounds of the murderous explosion have ceased, but not its sequels. 

Among them I wish to underscore the fear generated in vast sectors of the population, 
based on their inability to understand how and why a community center can be attacked with 
such cruelty, a center dedicated to the common good, to religious services, to social welfare 
and education, to promote culture and develop activities for young people. That is the 
mission of the A. M.I. A., which has just celebrated 100 years of service, being one of the 
most important organizations of its kind in the Jewish world. 

Fear, the legitimate reaction of people who face a brutal and apparently uncontrollable 
threat, generates such undesirable and painful effects as seeing the victims of terrorism as 
potential threat to them, as if the victims were the criminals, and generating attempts of 
segregation that would severely effect the principle of pluralism. 

Although it hurts to admit it, it is true that for some circles, today Argentinean Jews 
are considered a potential source of danger, and therefore there is an attempt to create a 
separation between Jews and non-Jews, in a reappearance of attitudes that we believed had 
been definitely eradicated from Argentinean society. This constitutes a significant challenge 
for our society, and especially for the Government, so as not to allow that the long struggle 
to eliminate all forms of discrimination, and particularly anti-Semitism, be frustrated. 

In a climate of tension and confusion, we have witnessed expressions inspired in the 
anti-Semitic prejudice, including its modem version, anti-Zionism, and coming in times of 
such sorrow for the Jewish community. We do not minimize the potential threat and do not 
take it lightly. 

President, Dr. Carlos Menem has shared our concern and reiterated his commitment 
to neutralize those alarm signals. The next few weeks will allow us to evaluate with greater 
clarity the development of this serious issue and we will be able to draw more definite 

conclusions. 

It is our hope that the downward trend that was taking place in our country vis-a-vis 
anti-Semitism, that allowed me to report to this same Sub-committee in early February of 



77 



this year, on a positive tone, may be ratified without any doubt in the near future. We trust 
that several measures the Argentinean government is adopting, such as the struggle against 
discrimination and anti-Semitism, the active repudiation of the presence of Nazi war 
criminals in our country and the initiatives that it has proposed nationally and internationally 
regarding the fight against terrorism, will contribute towards this goal. 



rv 

The savage attack against the headquarters of A. M.I. A. and D.A.I. A. is undergoing 
a thorough investigation, both by the courts as well as the security and intelligence agencies, 
and public opinion is anxiously waiting for the identification and apprehension of those 
responsible, directly and ideologically, both coming from outside the country as well as from 
within it. 

It is necessary to indicate that to the commotion caused by this terrorist attack on the 
A. M.I. A., was added the frustration for the lack of concrete results of the investigation 
regarding the attack suffered by the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, in 1992. Such a 
circumstance has special relevance today, because it is a negative precedent regarding the 
ability of the State to punish international terrorism. 



I wish to underscore that this violation of our rule of law perpetrated on July 18, 
which left over 100 dead, and more than 250 injured, took place in the framework of a 
democracy where public freedoms and human rights are highly respected, notwithstanding 
cenain deficiencies in the system, which is in a state of transition. 

Exercising those same freedoms, which obviously include freedom of the press and of 
expression. 1 had the duty of presenting the position of the Jewish commumty and of vast 
sectors of society, with the President of Argentina in attendance, without euphemisms and 
ambiguities. I mention that speech as an example of the degree of freedom existing in my 
country, and it is fair to acknowledge the behavior of the government in this respect and the 
merit of the citizens of exercising their rights without limitations, without self-censorship, 
without fear, all of which do not belong in a true democratic system. 

I enclose a copy of that speech, for the record, because I believe it should be studied 
by this Sub-committee. 

VI 

The legitimate demands presented in that speech have found a positive echo in the 
government, which among others has implemented a series of security measures to protect 
Jewish institutions, reinforcing those in existence up to now and has promised 



78 



complementary actions within the framework of defense and foreign relations policy. 

With reference to the resolution adopted by the Security Council of the United 
Nations at the request of my government, we are not satisfied because such resolution makes 
no reference - for political motivations - to the fact that the attack was against the center of 
Argentmean Jewish life. 

It must be clear that we have not satisfied all our aspirations, nor are we making any 
compromise in our strong demand to obtain effective answers to our concerns. 

Our non-panisan character, our status as a non-governmental organization, 
autonomous and independent by tradition and by principle, gives us the authority to fulfill 
this active role with a certainty that through it we are contributing to the strengthening of 
democracy and defending legitimate interests of society as a whole. With that same 
authority, we express before this distinguished body our call to face fundamentalist terrorism, 
of which Argentina - at the very heart of its Jewish community - has been the victim. 

We still have time to prevent indifference from allowing the development of Nazism 
and the crimes it committed, is not repeated in the face of an ideology that does not hide its 
genocidal fanaticism, its terrifying violence and total disregard for human life. 

VII 

Based on what has been previously said, we consider it appropriate to request the 
following: 

1 . To the respected Congress of the United States as representatives of the 
people, view the terrorist attack as a highly serious example of the dangers of 
international terrorism, and consequently articulate legislative measures to help 
defeat this dangerous threat to peace and harmony among peoples. 

2. Within the same context, we request that the initiatives recently proposed 
by the Argentinean Foreign Minister to the Security Council of the United 
Nations be supponed. 

3. That the United States continue to provide maximum cooperation to 
Argentina, as requested, towards the goal of finding those responsible for the 
criminal attack. 

4 We are also confident that the United States Congress will promote at the 
United Nations those policies that would involve the organization to seek 
sanctions against those member states who support or protect terrorists. With 
the same intent, we hope that the Group of Seven will join their efforts 
towards the same goals. 



79 



5. We also respectfully request the Congress of the United States to support 
our forthcoming requests to the European Union, within the same goals. 

6. It is naniral to suggest to the Organization of American States that, added 
to their public condemnation of the attack, it adopts resolutions in order to 
work together to prevent and combat international terrorism. 

The forthcoming Hemispheric Summit that will take place in December in Miami, 
must be the opportunity - as announced by the Secretary of State, Mr. Warren Christopher - 
for the heads of state to effectively express their solidarity with victims of terrorism and 
adopt adequate decisions. 

VIII 

Mr. President: 

We have to face international terrorism. Everyone is a potential victim, and no one 
has the right to remam indifferent. Democratic societies constitute the only way of life that 
insures the protection and the rights of all its citizens. 

As a believer, I appeal to the spiritual leaders of all faiths so that in each prayer they 
ask for respect, harmony and peace between all human beings. 

As a descendant of immigrants coming from Syria, where as in other countries of the 
region, Jews and Muslims coexisted in the past, I call upon them so that they do not allow 
those withm their midst who abhor the spirimal values of their faith, committing horrible 
crimes under its name. We urge them, instead, to join those who are actively promoting the 
peace process between Israel and the Arab countries, for the benefit of all the peoples of the 
region and world peace. 



Mr. Chairman; 

Even,' human being has the right to enjoy the fundamental freedoms, and governments 
have the responsibility of ensuring them. Today we witness with great concern that one of 
those essential freedoms is in danger: The freedom from fear. Every one of us, to the 
extent of his or her responsibilities, must join efforts to stop the threat of terrorism. 

Argentinean society has made it very clear: We stand together against terrorism. 



THANK YOU VERY MUCH 



80 



Testimony 

of 

Ms. Barbara A. Bodine 

Coordinator for Counterterrorism 

before 

the Subcommittee on 

International Security, International Organizations 

and Human Rights 

of the 

House Foreign Affairs Committee 



August 1, 1994 



Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee: 

Thank you for inviting the State Department to testify this 
morning. We deeply appreciate your continuing interest, as 
demonstrated through this hearing, in U.S. Government efforts 
to counter the threat posed by international terrorism. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to take this opportunity to 
e.xtend on behalf of the Secretary of State and the entire 
Department our deepest sympathies to all the victims of the 
recent terrorist attacks in Buenos Aires, London and, Panama, 
as well as the attacks, albeit unrelated, in Madrid and 
Northern Ireland last Friday. 

It is particularly tragic and ironic that the attacks in 
Buenos Aires, Panama and London occurred just as prospects for 
peace in the Middle East are brighter than they have been this 
century. And, let me assure you, the forces opposed to a 
comprehensive peace in the Middle East will not meet their 
objective by attacks on civilians literally thousands of miles 
away. In this regard, we are deeply heartened at the recent 
massive demonstration by 150,000 Argentines that took place in 
Buenos Aires to repudiate the bombing and to express solidarity 
with the families of the victims. 

Mr. Chairman, just a few days ago you held hearings to 
examine again the response of this government to the Pan Am 103 
bombing. In many respects, what happened at the Argentine 
Israeli Mutual Association (AMIA) is a tragic parallel to that 
terrible night over Lockerbie. Just as Pan Am 103 demonstrated 
the callousness and savagery of international terrorism, so too 
did AMIA. More importantly, the Pan Am 103 bombing--and 
similar acts of terrorism in the 1980s--invigorated many states 
to combat terrorism through the application of the rule of law 
and by bringing pressure to bear on those few states that 
support terrorism. I trust that the AMIA bombing, and the 
incidents that have followed it, will produce the same 
consequences for those who undertake such attacks and those 
governments that help make such attacks happen. 



81 



As you requested, I would like to explain what the U.S. 
Government has done, both in the aftermath of the AMIA bombing 
and a similar attack in 1992 on the Israeli Embassy in Buenos 
Aires, to assist the Government of Argentina in its efforts to 
investigate and to bring to justice those responsible for this 
outrage, and to deter future acts of terrorism. 

In 1992 and again after the AMIA bombing, the U.S. sent 
investigative and forensic personnel to Buenos Aires to 
provide on-the-scene assistance to their Argentine 
colleagues. The most recent team included representatives 
of the State Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security, 
the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 
Included on that team in view of his special expertise was 

one of the key bomb site technicians from the World Trade 
Center investigation. That team has now completed its 
crime scene work and has returned to the U.S. As requested 
by Argentina, evidence collected by the team will be 
analyzed in FBI and ATF laboratories. An Argentine 
forensic specialist came back with the team to participate 
in these forensic studies. 

A central element in the effective international effort to 
prevent and counter terrorism or to bring to justice those 
responsible for such attacks is the effective exchange of 
intelligence. I wish to assure you that the U.S. 
intelligence community is cooperating closely and 
effectively with other services as part of the 
international effort to identify those responsible for this 
recent outrage. 

To help prevent such terrorist horrors, the United States 
has also provided extensive training through the 
Anti-terrorism Training Assistance program to Argentina 
between 1992 and now. Among the courses offered have been 
Post-Blast Investigation, Explosive Incident 
Countermeasures and a Terrorist Interdiction Seminar. Many 
other courses have also been offered or are scheduled, Mr. 
Chairman, and I would ask that the list I have prepared be 
made part of the Committee's record. 

The United States has also been deeply concerned over the 
development in Latin America of a Hizballah presence. Just 
this spring, we approached governments throughout the 
region expressing our concern over the growing Hizballah 
presence. Unfortunately, the responses taken to date have 
proven inadequate. We will, of course, be undertaking 
additional initiatives concerning this issue, as Secretary 
Christopher discussed last Thursday. 

Mr. Chairman, you also asked me to address the issue of 

what group or groups might have undertaken this attack. Let me 

begin by reviewing what we know about the 1992 attack on the 
Israeli Embassy. That attack was clearly the work of 

Hizballah, the terrorist group created by Iran and which has 
undertaken some of the world's most repulsive acts of 



82 



terrorism, particularly hostage-taking and murder in Lebanon 
during the 1980s. Hizballah publicly claimed responsibility 
for bombing the Embassy and, when this claim was questioned by 
the Lebanese government, the group released a video of the 
Embassy taken during a surveillance operation in order to 
authenticate its claim. 

The investigation into this most recent bombing continues, 
and we have not yet determined which group or groups were 
responsible for this attack. What we can say, however, is that 
this bombing demonstrates both the unfortunate global reach of 
terrorists, and their willingness to attack "soft" targets, 
chosen only because of their symbolic value. While Hizballah 
has denied that it bombed AMIA, this bombing certainly has the 
hallmarks of a Hizballah operation and a statement about the 
attack has been made by a group using the name Ansar Al'Allah. 
This appears to be an offshoot of Hizballah. 

Mr. Chairman, while this hearing has been called to address 
the recent AMIA incident, it is also important that I discuss 
briefly the apparent bombing of a commuter plane outside of 
Colon, Panama. This apparent act of aviation sabotage killed 
twenty-one people, including three Americans. It is too early 
to conclude definitively if the objective of this attack was 
political in nature or perhaps just a type of personal vendetta 
by a drug cartel. It is worth noting, moreover, that the Ansar 
al' Allah, when it issued its statement regarding the AMIA 
bombing, also included a reference to the bombing of an 
aircraft in Panama. This statement was made well before 
aviation e.xperts had determined that the plane had, in fact, 
been bombed . 

Just as in the case of Argentina, the United States is 
cooperating closely with Panamanian authorities. Shortly after 
the plane crashed, the U.S. sent a team of investigators from 
the National Transportation Safety Board and the FAA to 
Panama. In addition to experts on aviation safety, the 
U .S . --through the FBI--is providing forensic assistance. 
Lastly, since this case resulted in the deaths of three 
Americans, this bombing is being aggressively investigated by 
the FBI, pursuant to U.S. "long arm" statutes. 

Mr. Chairman, I would also like to comment upon one 
additional incident in Latin America which--while not 
terrorism--is certainly instructive of the lengths to which 
Iran will go in its efforts to silence dissent. In June of 
this year Manoucher Moatamer and his family fled Iran. He is a 
former government official in Tehran. He and his family fled 
to Turkey, and then managed to obtain visas for Cuba. After 
arriving there, Iranian embassy personnel forced them onto a 
flight to Caracas. When they arrived there, they were met by 
other Iranian official personnel who essentially kidnapped the 
family, in apparent preparation for a forcible repatriation to 
Iran. Mr. Moatamer managed to escape and notify the UNHCR of 
his predicament. He and his family are now, thankfully, safe. 
The Government of Venezuela, I am pleased to state, has 



83 



declared all of the Iranian officials involved, as well as the 
Ambassador, persona non grata. Furthermore, the Government of 
Argentina is investigating carefully information provided by 
Mr. Moatamer concerning the AMIA bombing. 

The last week has also seen two additional acts of 
international terrorism in London. One target was the Israeli 
consulate, the other an office of a Jewish social services 
agency. Remarkably, no one was killed in either of these 
incidents, but there was extensive property damage and some 
twenty people were injured in these attacks. 

The British have extensive experience in investigating 
bombings and have not sought U.S. technical assistance. We 
are, however, following closely all developments regarding 
these incidents. We will be coordinating closely with the 
British government regarding a common response to these 
apparent acts of state-sponsored terrorism. The two attacks in 
London have now been claimed in Beirut by a group calling 
itself "Movement of the Oppressed." The name used in the 
statement, as well as the means used to make the claim, suggest 
that the statement is both authentic and made on behalf of 
Hizballah. 

Mr. Chairman, the events of the last two weeks demonstrate 
all too clearly that international terrorism remains a threat 
to democratic states and their people throughout the world. At 
the same time, I believe we are making progress in limiting 
both the number of states willing to sponsor terrorism and the 
support they provide to terrorists. And we will be doing more 
in this regard, as Secretary Christopher described in his 
testimony before this Committee just last Thursday. Efforts 
such as those described by the Secretary, and the longstanding 
policy objectives we pursue to counter terrorism, are the best 
way to reduce further the perils posed by terrorism. The task 
will be neither quick nor always successful, but I want to 
assure you and this Committee of the commitment of the State 
Department to do all that it can to meet this goal. 

Thank you for this opportunity to appear before your 
Cominittee . 



84 



statement of Rep. Gary L. Ackerman 
August 1, 1994 

Thank you Mr. Chairman. Permit me to commend both of you, 
Chairman Lantos and Chairman Toricelli, for holding this timely 
hearing. The recent tragedies in Argentina, Panama, and the 
United Kingdom are poignant reminders that the scourge of 
international terrorism remains with us. 

The despicable events of the last two weeks are well known. 
The July 18 bombing of the Delegation of Argentine Israeli 
Organizations took the lives of ninety-six innocent people. Days 
later, twenty-one more were murdered when a second terrorist bomb 
destroyed a Panamanian commuter jet. This diabolical trend 
continued when less than a week ago, two car bombs exploded in 
London, one outside the Israeli embassy, and another outside a 
building that housed several Jewish organizations. Thankfully, 
no one was killed in the London attacks. These bombings — the 
hatred that motivated them and the brutality with which they were 
carried out — are sickening. Indeed, such barbarism is 
difficult to understand. 

The motivation for these acts seems to be political. We are 
fortunate enough to live in a time when momentous changes are 
taking place in the Middle East. Just last Wednesday we 
witnessed what would have been unthinkable only a few years ago: 
the Prime Minister of Israel and the King of Jordan declared 
their commitment to peace. But, sadly enough, not everyone 
supports these great changes. Indeed, the recent acts of terror 
in Argentina, Panama, and the United Kingdom remind us that some 
extremists are willing to commit murder to undermine the peace 
process. They must not be allowed to succeed. We must not 
permit these individuals to slow, even for a moment, the progress 
towards lasting peace in the Middle East. 

These acts are motivated by more than politics. One does 
not have to scratch very deeply before it becomes apparent that 
hatred plays a role: the very same kind of ethnic hatred that 
motivated the Nazis in World War II, and that today is 
responsible for the slaughter in Bosnia and Rwanda. Sometimes we 
see this kind of ethnic hatred rear its ugly head in the United 
States, and that is deeply troubling. 



85 



We must not be silent on the issue of terrorism. We must 
make it clear to everyone that this kind of violence, whether 
motivated by politics or by pure hatred, is unacceptable and 
unforgivable. We must put the terrorists on notice that their 
acts will be condemned and justice will be vigorously pursued. I 
have introduced a resolution condemning these recent attacks, 
expressing condolences to the families of the victims, and 
calling on the world community to cooperate in bringing the 
criminals who ordered and carried out these vicious attacks to 
justice, and I urge my colleagues to join me in speaking out 
against these crimes. 

Taking swift action to condemn the terrorists is a good 
first step, but it is no more than a first step. Too often it 
seems that there is little else we can do. We must work 
together, along with the international community, to find new and 
more effective ways to combat international terrorism. For this 
reason I am fully supportive of the bipartisan call for an 
international conference on this issue advocated by my friend and 
colleague Tom Lantos. Thank you. 



86 




THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL 
AGAINST ANTISEMITISM 



1 August :l?94 



FACSTMILE TRANSMISSION 



FOR THE ATTENTION OF: Congressman Toa Lantos 



PROM: The Hon Greville Jaunner QC MP 



87 



The 



v^B^ 



THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL 
AGAINST ANTISEMITISM 



We send our respectful greetings to the Honourable 
Congressman Ton Lantos and to our distinguished colleagues 
on the Congressional Foreign Affairs Conunittea. We much 
appreciated your invitation to attend to give evidence on 
the London terrorist bombings and much regret that we could 
not accept. We trust this report of the Inter- 
parliamentary Council Against Antisenitisa on the bomb 
attacks on the Israeli Embassy and Balfour House in London 
will be of assistance. 



At 12.10pm on Tuesday 26th July 1994 a car bomb exploded 
outside the Israeli Embassy in Kensington High Street, 
London injuring fourteen people. The driver, described as 
a middle aged woman of mediterranean appearance, parked the 
car outside a block of flats at the end of Kensington 
Palace Gardens, next to a wall of the Embassy. 



88 

She was approached and challenged by a private security 
guard and an Israeli Embassy guard, but satisfied them of 
her bona fide. The car bomb which contained, between 201b 
and 301b of Semtex, exploded two minutes later. The blast 
was heard eight miles away. The bomb shattered the windows 
of Kensington Palace, the home of the Princess of Wales. 

* At 1:00 am on Wednesday 27th July 1994 a small car bomb 
exploded outside Balfour House, in Finchley, North London. 
Three people were injured. Balfour House houses the Joint 
Israel Appeal, and a number of Jewish organisations. 

* The bomb went off at 12.46 am between police visits. 

* On Wednesday 27th a Minister from the Foreign and 
Commonwealth Office, visited the Embassy, and condemned the 
bombing. 

Why Londo n? ;. 

* London has acquired a reputation amongst Muslim refugees 
who believe they have more protection here, than in other 
European countries, such as France, where there is more 
political instability, and greater fear of being deported 
should the political situation change. Britain has no laws 
against proscribing non-Irish terrorist organisations. 



89 



* About 100 Jewish and Israeli buildings were reportedly 
immediately placed under armed 24 hour guard and surrounded 
by strict parking restrictions. 

* (1) Sir Paul Condon, Metropolitan Police Corunissioner, said 
that Israeli agencies abroad were helping Scotland Yard 
with their enquiries and that there was full co-operation 
at every level. 

* (2) That it was impossible to identify the totality of 
potential targets at risk of terrorist attack, and that a 
top tier, band "A" set of targets had been created. 

* (3) That States such as Syria, Iran and Iraq had been 
involved in such sophisticated acts in the past but there 
was no proof that any of these were involved in either 
incident. 

* (4) Israeli sources have informed us that Hezbollah, 
Hamas or a smaller Islamic fundamentalist faction are 
behind the bombing. 



90 

Political rft>^(;t^'^n; 

* On 27th July, Prime Minister, John Major sent a message of 
support to Prime Minister Rabin in Israel and Foreign 
Secretary Douglas Hurd wrote to the Israeli Ambassador 
Moshe Raviv. 

* Uzi Barram, Israel's Tourism Minister who was in London at 
the time of the blast, said that suicide attacks were a new 
feature of British terrorism though they have been used by 
groups such as Hezbollah for a number of years. 

* Hone Office Minister, David Maclean wrote in a letter 
to our President Grevillc Janner QC MP that the 
Government did "not regard the banning of terrorist 
organisations as one of our main weapons in tha 
struggle against terrorism." 

* Tony Blair, newly elected Leader of the Opposition, said; 
" I am appalled at the bombing outrages. I deplore the 
fact that terrorist acts are being committed against the 
Jewish community." 

* Jack Cunnigham, Shadow Foreign Secretary, wrote to Douglas 
Hurd, asking him to provide, "much greater levels of 
surveillance and protection .... for the Israeli Ambassador 
and his staff, officers, and organisations associated with 
the Jewish community in London." 



91 



On 28th July, and aft«r intervention by the Council, the 
Governinent announced that it was working closely with th«- 
Argentinians on a UN Security Council Presidential 
Statenent strongly condemning terrorism and emphasising the 
need to stregthen international co-operation to combat it. 

Prime Minister John Major told the Conservative Middle East 
Council that the "we must seek out the perpetrators 
and bring them to justice. It is unacceptable for any 
State to tolerate, let alone support, terrorism." 



The Counci l recommends; 

* (1) On 27th July the Council asked the Prirae Minister and 
the Home Secretary to condemn the act. 

* (2) To proscribe Hamas and any other Islamic extremist 
organisation associated with terror 

* ( 3 ) To impose sanctions on those countries which either 
commission, harbour or assist in the perpetration of such 
acts . 

* (4) To urge the European Union and the United Nations to 
impose sanctions, aod to co-sponsor an urgent debate at the 
Security Council of the United Nations on International 

Terrorism. 

* The Council respectfully invites your distinguished 
committee to urge all nations to take those or similar 
steps . 



92 

UK WRITTEN STATEMENT ON BUENOS AIRES/LONDON BOMBINGS 

The United Kingdom strongly condemns the recent bombings in 
London of the Israeli Embassy on 26 July and of Balfour House 
(offices of a number of Jewish Organisations) on 27 July. 
Fortunately there were no fatalities, though a number of 
people were injured and there was extensive damage to 
property. 

We also strongly condemn the appalling bombing of the 
Headquarters of the Israeli Association for Mutual Assistance 
of Argentina in Buenos Aires on 18 July which caused the loss 
of so many lives and many injuries. Our sympathies and 
condolences go to all the victims of these despicable 
atrocities and their families. 

The Prime Minister said on 28 July: 

"We cannot yet be certain who lay behind these acts, or 
whether they are connected. But I want to express the 
repugnance of everyone here at these attacks and at all acts 
of terrorism - and our sympathy for the victims and the 
bereaved . 

For terrorism is the enemy of us all. Terrorism has been 
directed at those who seek peace and progress in the Middle 
East. Terrorism is perpetrated by those who refuse to abide by 
the rule of law and by the principles of a civilised society. 

We must seek out its perpetrators and bring them to justice. 
It is unacceptable for any State to tolerate, let alone 
support, terrorism. The international community must unite 
against it . " 



93 



The Foreign Secretary has also expressed the Government's 
condemnation of these bombings. 

The United Kingdom is deeply concerned about such acts of 
international terrorism and, as the Prime Minister has said, 
we are making every effort to bring the perpetrators to 
justice. It is important for the international community to 
take strong and effective measures to combat terrorism. We 
welcome Secretary of State Christopher's statement to the 
House Foreign Relations Committee on 28 July that the State 
Department's counter-terrorism experts would begin to look for 
ways to enhance international cooperation against terrorism. 
The UK will play its full part. 

We also welcome the close cooperation we have received from 
allies and friends and are in close touch with the Argentine, 
Israeli and US authorities. Although there is yet no firm 
evidence of who carried out these atrocities an intense 
investigation is under way to try and establish who was 
responsible. A comprehensive review of security has also 
taken place and over 100 Israeli and other premises are under 
armed guard. 



BRITISH EMBASSY 
WASHINGTON 

29 JULY 1994 




94 



Speech delivered by the President of D.A.I. A. , Dr. Ruben Beraja on July 21. 1994 
at a public rally held in Buenos Aires. 

Fellow Argentines 

The brutal, criminal attack that sowed death and destruction in the center 
of Jewish institutional life in Argentina has brought us together in vast 
numbers, in spite of the untimely weather, we are here to offer a courageous 
and civilized albeit energetic response to this abominable crime. Terror, 
regardless of its origin and of the viper that engenders it, once again, has 
undermined public security to attack the venerable and benevolent A.M.I.A. and 
D.A.l.A , to assault the Argentine Jewish Community, extending its violence to the 
entire Republic and its inhabitants irrespectively of their creed or sector. This is 
not a rhetorical statement, nor is it a compromise. These are not times for 
rhetoric or for empty words 

The barbaric attack perpetrated last Monday has undermined the very foundations 
of our National State, irrupting in full daylight, In the center of Buenos Aires, 
imposing its criminal law over the rule of law, disposing of the lives and the 
property of the Argentine people upon its vicious whim. It has fractured our 
domestic harmony instilling consternation and fear over public order. For this 
reason it is evident that although the outrage was directed against the Argentine 
Jewish Community it could not be consumated without first attacking the legal 
foundations on which our Nation is based. It could not have taken place without 
suppressing '_ne nriorai foundation of an entire civilized society. 

In response to the magnitude of the aggression It is logical that our citizenry 
should be present, representing all sectors. Beyond natural human solidarity 
inspired by the pain of our fellow human beings, we are well aware that we cannot 
shrug off or ignore the challenge arising from the depth of our perception, since 
this attack involves us all and affects us all. 

The reign of terror with its criminal logic tend'.; to install itself in those 
ocieties in which the legal order is weak, in which systems of prevention and 
punishment, are neither efficient nor effective, and the repudiation of t^^^e-men-an^ 
women-of the people is not sufficiently energetic. Under these circumstances, it is 
our task to define our conduct in order to put an end to these attacks. First of all, 
by the action of civil society which as it has done today. In an exemplary and 
moving manner, to such a degree that I weep, seeing you from here, from this 
podium 



c 



95 



Our citizenry must unite, solldarlly, in order to banish all douDts as to its 
repulsion of terror. Its conduct should not be guided by the fear of living near 
Jews but rather by the courage of fighting crime, acting from within a social 
fabric imbued with the ethics of civilization. The State and Institutions must face 
this new reality from a different perspective, with new concepts, putting 
defense to the service of the Republic, of the Constitution and of the People. 
Security is not to be interpreted merely as repression, and the administration of 
Justice Implies enforcement of the law with effective vigor. 

Thus one can better understand the repeated requests that the investigation and 
procedures relating to the attack on the Embassy of Israel 28 months ago, lead to 
the establishment of responsibilities and the punishment of the guilty. 
This is necessary not only punish the guilty but essentially because it implies a 
revalidation of the estalished order, that of our legal system over the system of 
criminal terrorism. It implies a demonstration of our capacity to react and to 
show to ourselves and to the world that the lives of our inhabitants and their 
property is not at the mercy of international terrorism but is under the protection 
of the Argentine Republic and its institutions. It is regrettable that in spite of the 
time that has elapsed an appropriate response could not be achieved. 

A signal Is needed, indicating to international terrorism that Argentina is not a 
free zone for vandalism and aggression. In this context there are many persons 
who ask why Buenos Aires is chosen repeatedly as the scene for this type of crime. 

Personally, I believe that the aforementioned facts are a significant part of the 
answer Nevertheless between questions and answers I wish to refer to a question 
that Is brought up recurrently. Should these consequences not be attributed to 
Argentine policy? 1 answer the following; 

We can agree or disagree with the policy; what no Argentine can do is to modify it 
merely to neutralize terrorist aggression. In this case reasoning carried to the 
absurd would have us admit that terrorism not only reigns in our territory 
affecting domestic peace, but that It also imposes upon us our foreign policy. 

in facing up so clearly to a question that pertains to national politics, I do not 
intend to defend a given policy. That is not my role. What I demand is a new point 
of departure for dealing with this delicate subject. 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

96 



3 9999 05982 093 4 



we demand of the powers that De, as well as of the opposition, that they plart 
above party politics, above electoral calculations and ideological intransigencies, 
the creation of conditions that lead to the definitive erradication of this 
repeated spectre of terror in our country. 



Thus people will feel that the institutions are working on behalf of their 
legitimate interests. That those who are carrying out their mandate do It in the 
service of their electorate. It is clear that the government bears the heaviest 
portion of responsibility. It is to the government that we look In the first place 
with a claim for clear proposals formulated under the --esponslbility of true 
statesmen having in mind the common good no matter what the political cost. 

Dear fellow countrymen, while I speak to you I see in front of me only a few 
meters away the faces of tormented relatives bearing photographs of those who 
have not yet been found. Some are familiar faces. I speak now on behalf of the 
leaders of the Argentine Jewish community. Our responsibility is to continue the 
struggle without respite. With energy, without surcease. To accomplish results 
not merely in the interest of the Argentine Jewish community. Not as a simple 
matter of interest only of the Jews of Argentina, we bPiieve, on the contrary, that 
we are lending our country a service from our battling position, from our training 
for the struggle, from our capacity to face suffering in order to build a better 
world It is not In vain that we have travelled through 4000 years of history. 4000 
votirc h:>v/o nivpn ii<; manv scars Rut thpv hT^vo ^ico nv.-^r, ,,c ■» •/icion of thp wnrlri 

that we wishes to share with all our fellow Argentines And this vision does not 
allow fear to prevail among us. We must not allow terrorism to win its victory by 
cornering us in our homes. We must prevent the cowardly aspects of the human 
condition to take over our being because the nobility of the Argentine condition, 
the courage of the men that forged our history is not marked by that trait, it is 
marked Dy the strenth of men who did not renounce the fight for liberty and liberty 
implies enforcing the law By making use of It with the force that was given us by 
our condition as a sovereign people refusing to be directed or imposed on by 
aroitrary force or savage models foreign to our traditions 

God will that this vast meeting which will certainly mark the history of Argentina 
as the tragedy that brings us together today has already marked it, serve the 
purpose finding us together to build a better country where solidarity among all 
will become a daily reality instead of being the product of misfortune. Let us be 
united for important things at all times and let us understand that to be a country 
in which justice, fairness and solidarity prevail, each one of us must fulfill his 
obligations. This includes all our citizens, those who are in Government and those 
who are not. We who are in the field assume the challenge and will fight to make it 
a reality Thank you. 

o 



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